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Citation and Bibliography - recommendations for printed works

N.B. See separate file for notes on how to cite Electronic Sources

We leave it to the authors to choose between the standard footnote apparatus common in Assyriology and the test reference used in the social sciences.

Using a footnote apparatus

Consult the stylesheet of the publication Orientalia for guidelines in the use of footnotes in your article. Punctuation should generally follow the guidelines of The Chicago Manual of Style, 14th ed., rev. (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1993).

Within the text

In the text the brief reference, in brackets, comprises: author's or editor's surname; date of publication; comma, page number(s) not preceded by p. or pp. If two authors share the same surname and year of publication, give initials as well as surname. If more than one work by the same author in the same year is cited, the works should be distinguished with a lower case letter e.g. 1959a, 1959b etc. (not as 1959, 1959a etc.). If there are two or three authors, give all names. If there are more than three authors, quote the first name and use the formula `et al.'.

(Drake 1736, 34)
(Le Patourel 1968b, 167, fig.2)
(Coutts and Worthington 1986, 24)
(Dolley, Moriarty and Jones 1970a, 12-14)
(Smith et al., 1988)

The brief reference should be expanded to a full reference in the bibliography.

Where there is no appropriate author's or editor's name, as for some published historical sources or institutional publications, or where the name of the source, not the author, is normally cited, use a shortened version of the source or the institution in italics. List the abbreviations in the bibliography.

(Bede, Ecc. Hist., iv, 25)
(York Minster Fab. R., 237)
(RCHMY 1, 68-9)

In the bibliography/reference section

The bibliography is an alphabetical list of all authorities quoted in the article.

For a book

We recommend the following style:
the name(s) of all author(s) or the body responsible for authorship as given on the title page, with initial coming after the surname
date of publication
title of book as on title page in italics FULL STOP
number of volume in Arabic numerals FULL STOP
place of publication FULL STOP

Drake, F. 1736 Eboracum. London.
Down, A. and Rule, M. 1971 Chichester Excavations. 1. Chichester.

Where a book forms part of a series, the name of the series and the number should also be given.

Rogerson, A. 1976. Excavations on Fuller's Hill, Great Yarmouth. East Anglian Archaeological Reports. 2. Gressenhall.

For a periodical

Author's name as given at the head of the article (initials after the surname)
date of publication
article title between quotation marks FULL STOP
journal title in italics FULL STOP
volume number in Arabic numerals FULL STOP
page numbers of article FULL STOP

Lancy, J.T. 1965 "Note on a hog-back recently found in York." Yorkshire Archaeology Journal. 41. 339-40.

For a contribution within a book or an article

Author's name (initials after surname)
date of publication
article title between quotation marks FULL STOP
the word 'In'
full reference for source work as given above for a book or periodical, but without year and with initials before surname FULL STOP
page numbers of contribution FULL STOP

Harden, D. B. 1961 "Domestic window glass, Roman, Saxon and medieval." In E. M. Jope (ed.) Studies in Building History . London. 39-63.
Crowfoot, E. 1969 "Textiles." In P.J. Tester "Excavations at Fordcroft, Orpington." Archaeologia Cantiana. 84. 50-3.

Style Guidelines Guidelines for Authors