A New Ur III Letter-Order from the Semitic Museum at Harvard University: Notes

1  Abbreviations follow CDLI’s convenient list <http://cdli.ox.ac.uk/wiki/abbreviations_for_assyriology>. SM 1899.2.135 is published with the kind permission of Piotr Steinkeller, Curator of Cuneiform Collections, and Lawrence E. Stager, Director and Curator. A good quality photo of the tablet is available on the website of the CDLI project (CDLI no. P405912). The copy of the seal impression was prepared by Alessandro Di Ludovico. For recent treatments of Ur III letter-orders, see Urciuoli 2009 and Allred 2010. A comprehensive analysis of the Ur III letter-orders is in preparation by Daniele Umberto Lampasona (Universit. di Napoli “l'Orientale”), while an edition of all Ur III letter-orders appearing since Sollberger 1966 was announced by Lance Allred (Allred 2010: 9 note 2). An edition of four unpublished letter-orders in the British Museum (BM 93653, BM 94080, BM 94502, BM 94972) is in preparation by P. Notizia and L. Verderame.

 

2  We are grateful to Manuel Molina and Piotr Steinkeller who read a draft of this paper and offered helpful comments and suggestions. Needless to say, we alone are responsible for any and all errors.

 

3  TCS 1, 48, 49; Molina, AuOr 17-18 (1999-2000) 226 no. 32; BM 94502 (see note 1).

 

4  For others letter-orders from Girsu dealing with field assignments, see e.g. TCS 1, 50 (= Michalowski 1993: no. 95), 153 (= Michalowski 1993: no. 177; see also Maekawa 1992: 216 n. 11), 161, 225 (Michalowski 1993, no. 198), 230 (Michalowski 1993, no. 86), 365.

 

5  Dahl 2002: 334. According to Maekawa (1991: 213) in the Ur III period the area of each allotment parcel was a multiple of 3 iku.

 

6  Steinkeller 2004: 93.

 

7  A letter-order, from Umma, mentioning a 4 iku subsistence field is TCS 1, 148 (= Michalowski 1993: no. 76; Koslova 2003: 243 no. 3).

 

8  Dahl 2002: 334 with previous bibliography.

 

9  Maekawa 1992: 198. Steinkeller 1999: 303 and note 51. For the arrangement of the allotment plots within a field, see Maekawa 1992: 188-196.

 

10  Maekawa 1992: 180 and note 2; Maekawa 1995: 197; Maekawa 1999: 66 and note 10.

 

11  See Falkenstein 1966: 169; Suter 2000: 87. For the reading and etymology of Tira’aš, see Selz 1993: 719; Edzard 1997a: 75 (RIME 3/1.1.7.Cyl A [Gudea]) ad x 15; Edzard 1997b: 163; Edzard, RlA 9 s.v . Name, Namengebung. A, p. 102 § 11. See also the forthcoming entry “Tiraš, Tira’aš” in the RlA by Gebhard Selz.

 

12  See Frayne 1997: 112 (RIME 1.9.1.26 [Ur-Nanše]), 152 (RIME 1.9.3.7a [Eannatum]), 266 (RIME 1.9.9.2 [URUKAgina]). See also George 1993: 150 no. 1097; Edzard, RlA 10 s.v. Palast. A. III, p. 208 § 7. A location at modern Šaṭrah was proposed by Frayne (1997: 112), but his announced article on the geography of Lagaš province has never been published. For other attestations of Tira’aš in pre-Ur III period, see Selz 1995: 383- 416 “Index B” s.v. e2-ti-ra-aš2, e2-gal-ti-ra-aš2 GAN2- nigin8-ti-ra-aš2-du3-a, i3-du8-ti-ra-aš2ki.

 

13  Our list updates the entry “Tiraš” by Edzard & Farber 1974: 197-198.

 

14  Maekawa, ASJ 17 (1995), p. 205 no. 100 rev. i 12, 19, ii 15 (a-ša3 ti-ra-aš2-ta-ma-ag2) possibly refers to another field.

 

15  For this integration, see Civil 1994: 126.

 

16  For Kisura, see Heimpel 1994: 27; Heimpel 1996: 20.

 

17  For fields names typology, see Edzard, RlA 9 s.v. Name, Namengebung. A, p. 103 § 12.4. For ulu3-di “lamentation singer”, see Attinger 1993: 737 and Selz 1995: 205 note 955.

 

18  For ulu3-di nu-banda3-gu4, see CT 5, pl. 27, BM 18933, obv. i 11; HSS 4, 32 obv. 9. For ulu3-di ugula kikken2, see CT 3, pl. 35, BM 21335, obv. iv 16.

 

19  The expression im-a ge.n appears also in the letter-orders TCS 1, 335 (=MVN 7, 406; see also Wilcke 1998: 32- 34) rev. 4 (en-na im še-ba-a i3-ib2-ge-ne2); Hallo, BiOr 26 (1969), p. 174 BM 18568 (= Michalowski 1993: no. 134) obv. 5-6 (im še-ba siki-ba ga-bi2-ge); TCS 1, 276 obv. 6-7 (im še-ba-ka ḫe2-bi-ib-ge-ne2). The same expression is attested in several administrative texts: MVN 13, 172 rev. 2 (im-ma i3-ib2-ge-en6); SANTAG 6, 115 rev. 6 (im tug2-ba e2-gal-ka nu-ub-ge-en6); NSGU 209 rev. ii 17 (im-ma bi2-in-ge); BM 25455 (courtesy M. Molina) left edge (im lu2 didli-ka ge-ne2-dam). For im-ma ge-na “confirmed on a tablet”, see OTR 251 rev. i 14; BPOA 1, 14 obv. ii 8 (im-ma! [=UR] ge-na). For im ge-na “confirmed tablet”, see Nisaba 11, 26 rev. ii 3-4 (im ge-na e2 dnin-ur4-˹ra˺, translated by al-Rawi and Verderame: “tavoletta di conferma”); Ontario 2, 424 (pisan dub-ba im ge-na še geš-e3-a giri3 bu3-bu3 mu en dnanna maš-e i3-pa3 i3-gal2, translated by Sigrist: “tablet basket <containing> the verified tablets [accounting for] the threshed barley, responsible: Bubu Š 43”). For other examples of “confirmation” of tablets, see BIN 3, 317 rev. 3 (im gu-la ge-ne2-dam); SANTAG 7, 129 (see also Sallaberger 2006: 270) rev. 3 (im ˹tug2˺-ba-˹bi? / ge-ne2- de3 //dam˺); HSS 4, 127 obv. 4 (im eš3 didli-ke4 ge-ne2- dam); MVN 22, 178 rev. ii 3' (im e2-gal ib2-ge-na); SNAT 506 rev. 4 (im-bi nu-ḫa-la nu-ge-en6). On the use of the verb ge.n in a peculiar typology of labels from Umma, see Laurito, Mezzasalma & Verderame 2006; Laurito, Mezzasalma & Verderame 2008.

 

20  For example in the impressions on YOS 4, 201 (Buchanan 1981: no. 620; here the lion is left-oriented), BPOA 6, 1476, and SAT 2, 400, all from Umma and kept in the Yale Babylonian Collection.

 

21  Some examples of these iconographies can be located in: Collon 1982: no. 386; Buchanan 1966: no. 422; Collon 1982: no. 433; von der Osten 1934: no. 136; Legrain 1925: no. 263; Buchanan 1981: no. 572 (SAT 3, 1492 = YBC 1704); MLC 166 (Yale Babylonian Collection).