Cuneiform Digital Library Journal
2002:1
ISSN 1540-8779
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The Ur III Collection of the CMAA

Robert K. Englund < englund@ucla.edu >
University of California, Los Angeles

Keywords
Ur III, Umma, Drehem, labor, animals


This material is based upon work supported by the
National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0000629.


§0. Since 1985, the California Museum of Ancient Art, Los Angeles (Director: Jerome Berman), has added to its collection of Babylonian antiquities a number of Ur III documents, of which one was edited by Daniel Foxvog in 1986 (“A Summary of Non-Sealed Labor Assignments from Umma,” ASJ 8, pp. 59-69). Fifteen of the remaining sixteen texts (excluding for a fuller philological treatment by M. Widell in this journal the text CMAA 015-C0019 documenting a legal proceeding) are offered below with short commentaries and computer-assisted tablet copies. For image documentation, references are made within the individual entries to the texts’ corresponding pages within the data set of the CDLI. The catalogue entries below consist of text numbers, dates (regnal year / month / day), provenience, and measurements height x width x thickness, in millimeters. Numbers 1-13 were a gift of Dr. and Mrs. Julius Winer, number 14 is a loan by Russ Kino, and no. 15 a gift of Russ and Ivonne Kino.

 

§1. No. 1 = CMAA 002-C0005

Shulgi 47 / 00 / 25, from Drehem ?

30x27x13mm

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Translation
obv. obv.
1)  4 gu4 4 ab2 1)  4 oxen 4 cows
2)  e2 muḫaldim 2)  (for) the household of the cook,
3)  u4 25-kam 3)  25th day,
4)  zi-ga 4)  booked out:
5) ˹ur˺-den2-lil2-la2 5)  Ur-Enlila
rev. rev.
1)  [                   ] 1)  [              ]
2)  (blank) 2)  (blank)
3)  mu-us2-sa ki-maški ba-ḫul 3)  Year after: “Kimash was destroyed”.

 

§1a. Although the text seems to be a common Drehem record of animals booked out of the accounts of officials, for which compare PDT 2, 958 i 17, 1026 rev. 2, 1273 obv. 10, Turin Drehem 399 obv. 4, all with the official Ur-Enlila in parallel context, there are also Umma parallels (UTI 3, 2055; UTI 3, 2285 obv. ii 9 (there qualified as a gudu4)). To the official Ur-Enlila in Umma see OrNS 47-49, 268 4: nam-ša3-tam ur-den2- lil2-la2 (his “official” seal reads in the same text ur-den2-lil2-la 2 / dub-sar / dumu lugal-ku3-ga-[ni]; see also MVN 16, 1066 and UTI 3, 1775). Note also Nik 2, 466 obv. 3: ur-d en2-lil2-la2 dub-sar maḫ (Drehem); MVN 7, 581 4: kurušda (Girsu).

 

§2. No. 2 = CMAA 002-C0006

Amar-Suen 2 / 2 / 28, from Drehem

35x33x17mm

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Translation
obv. obv.
1)  5 ab2 maḫ2 1)  5 full-grown cows
2)  ki lu2-dingir-ra dumu ir11-ḫul3-la-ta 2)  from Ludingira, son of Irḫula,
3)  dšul-gi-a-mu i3-dab5 3) Shulgi-ayamu accepted;
4)  iti u4 28 ba-zal 4)  month, the 28th day has passed,
rev. rev.
1)  (blank) 1)  (blank)
2)  iti ŠEŠ-da-gu7 2)  month “piglet meal”,
3)  mu damar-dsuen-ke4 ur-bi2-lumki mu-ḫul 3)  year: “Amar-Suen destroyed Urbilum”.

 

§2a. Lu-dingira son of Ir-ḫula is not seldom found in the Drehem archives, cp. PDT 2, 767 rev. iv 12 describing irregularities in the deliveries of animals by both Lu-dingira and Shulgi-ayamu. Both men receive animals from Abbasaga and Nasa in Drehem; see M. Hilgert, OIP 115, 17, and OIP 121, nos. 480-495 (in press). The dating formula iti u4 n ba-zal / iti month name is with ca. 500 attestations common in the Ur III administrative text corpus from Drehem. C. Wilcke drew attention in M. deJong Ellis, ed., Nippur at the Centennial. Papers Read at the 35e Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale, Philadelphia, 1988 (=Occasional Publications of the Samuel Noah Kramer Fund 14; Philadelphia 1992) 314 n. 10 to the occurrence in TRU 81 rev. 4 and BIN 3, 403 rev. 6 of the variant month name iti šaḫ2-ze2-da-gu7 (and note iti šaḫ2-ku3-gu7 in the so-called “treasury” archive from Drehem, for instance in the texts OIP 115, 466,TCL 2, 5481 and SAT 2, 516, ŠEŠ-ku3-gu7 in the Umma text MVN 14, 348; cp. W. Sallaberger, Der Kultische Kalender der Ur III-Zeit I [Berlin 1993] 8 and 195, OBO 166/3, p. 235, n. 319, and M. Civil in G. Pettinato, MEE 3, 276, note to line 12). P. Steinkeller at the 1993 meeting of the Sumerian Agriculture Group therefore proposed a reading iti zaḫx(ŠEŠ)-da-gu7 of our month name, the second in a Drehem/Ur string of three “animal-roast” month names (the other two animals being the gazelle maš-da3 and the u5-bi2 bird). He would transliterate the variant form iti zaḫdax(ŠAḪ2)ze-da-gu7 and, based above all on the notorious Ur III pig husbandry accounting pair PDT 2, 1049, and MVN 15, 64 (and note CTMMA 1, 15, obv. 1-2 with 1 ud5 / ga-bi ze2-da šaḫ2 gu7-de3, “1 jenny goat to suckle the zeda pig”), with their reference to ze2-da pigs receiving either just 1/3 sila3, or no barley as daily rations, translate “month ‘suckling pig meal’ ”.

 

§3. No. 3 = CMAA 002-C0007

Amar-Suen 2 / 9 / 25-26, from Drehem

31x28x15mm

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Translation
obv. obv.
1)  1 maš2 u4 25-kam 1)  1 billy goat, 25th day,
2)  2.26 udu maš2 ḫi-a 2)  146 various sheep and goats,
3)  u4 26-kam 3)  26th day.
4)  mu-DU 4)   delivery,
5)  ur-ku3-nun-na 5)   Urkununa
rev. rev.
1)  i3-dab5 1)  accepted;
2)  (blank) 2)  (blank)
3)  iti ezen-maḫ 3)  month “big festival”,
4)  mu damar-dsuen lugal-e
       ur-bi2-lumki mu-ḫul
4)  year: “Amar-Suen destroyed Urbilum”.
left edge left edge
1)  2.27 1)  147

 

 

§4. No. 4 = CMAA 002-C0008

Amar-Suen 4 / 2 / 15, from Drehem

36x32x15mm

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Translation
obv. obv.
1)  6 maš-da3 1)  6 gazelles
2)  e2 uz-ga 2)  to the UZGA household,
3)  mu-DU ša3-ga-na-kum 3)  delivery of Shaganakkum,
4)  ur-dba-ba6 maškim 4)  Ur-Baba was maškim,
5)  u4 15-kam 5)  15th day.
rev. rev.
1)  ki ab-ba-sa6-ga-ta 1)  Out of Abbasaga(’s account)
2)  ba-zi 2)  booked.
3)  (blank) 3)  (blank)
4)  iti ŠEŠ-da-gu7 4)  Month “piglet meal”,
5)  mu-us2-sa dgu-za den-lil2-la2 ba-dim2 5)  year after: “Divine chair of Enlil was fashioned”.
left edge left edge
1)  6 1)  6

 

§4a. W. Sallaberger, citing Jacobsen, Foster and Sigrist (particularly his Drehem pp. 158-162), in OLZ 91 (1996) 405 stated that the e2 uz-ga is not a fattening shed as usually believed. Sigrist surveyed the Ur III attestations of this establishment and concluded that it was probably a residence of some importance at Drehem visited by high functionaries including the queen, but that it was within the administrative purview of the “cook”. Its close association with the e2 gu4-gaz, “slaughter house” and the e2 muḫaldim, “household of the cook”, in such texts as the Harvard Semitic Museum household accounts published by A. Uchitel in ASJ 18, 223-228, however, suggests that it may after all be connected to the processing of meat, possibly because of the amount of reeds being transported there connected to a type of “smoke house”. Cp. OrNS 47-49, nos. 23, 26, etc., and the extensive article Wu Yuhong, “The ewes without lambs and the lambs cooked in e2-uz-ga, “the private house of kings”, in the Drehem archives,” JAC 11 (1996) 65-109.

 

§5. No. 5 = CMAA 002-C0009

Amar-Suen 4 / 9 min / 25, from Drehem

32x27x15mm

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Translation
obv. obv.
1)  1 gukkal 1)  1 fat-tailed sheep
2)  2 gukkal giš-du3 2)  2 fat-tailed sheep, breeders,
3)  3 udu aslum(A.LUM) 3)  3 aslum sheep,
4)  3 udu aslum(A.LUM) giš-du3 4)  3 aslum sheep, breeders,
5)  2 u8 gukkal 5)  2 fat-tailed ewes,
6)  1 sila4 gukkal 6)  1 fat-tailed lamb.
rev. rev.
1)  u4 25-kam 1)  25th day.
2)  ki ab-ba-sa6-ga-ta 2)  From Abbasaga
3)  dšul-gi-a-a-mu i3-dab5 3)  Shulgi-ayamu accepted.
4)  iti ezen-maḫ min3 4)  Month “big festival, the second”,
5)  mu en-maḫ-gal-an-na 5)  year: “Enmaḫgalana was installed as
       en dnanna ba-ḫun        en-priestess of  Nanna”.
left edge left edge
1)  12 1)  12

 

§5a. W. Heimpel has reviewed in BSA 7 (1993) 130-131 the textual evidence for the meaning of giš-du3, “mounting”, as a qualifier of small cattle, including and particularly gukkal. For the intercalary month iti ezen-mah min3 see W. Sallaberger, Kultischer Kalender 1, 8 n. 22 (with literature).

 

§6. No. 6 = CMAA 002-C0010

Amar-Suen 5 / 9 / 00, from Umma

36x36x15mm

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Translation
obv. obv.
1)  5 maš2 mu mu102-˹gar3˺-[še3] 1)  5 billy goats, in stead of the female kids,
2)  ki ab-ba-sa6-˹ga˺-[ta] 2)  from Abbasaga
3)  lugal-engar-du10 3)  Lugal-engar-du
4)  i3-dab5 4)  accepted.
5)  iti ezen-˹maḫ˺ 5)  Month “big festival”,
6)  mu en-unu6-˹gal˺ dinanna ba-ḫun 6)  year: “Enunugal(ana) of Inanna was installed”.
seal seal
1)  lugal-engar 1)  Lugal-engar,
2)  dumu lu2-den-lil2-la2 2)  son of Lu-Enlila,
3) ˹gudu4˺ d[šakkan2] 3)  gudu priest of [Shakkan].

 

§6a. J. Bauer, WO 13, 151, cites MSL 14, 49: 432 (proto-Ea), as evidence of a reading of /ešgar/ for MUNUS.AŠ2.GAR3, assuming an umlaut of /a/ to /e/ in this word (the “pronunciation” section of prEa shows eš(3)-gar; the reading /zeḫ/ was already shown to be incorrect in ZA 69, 208). To maš2 mu mu102-gar3-še3 see OrNS 47-49, 76 obv. 1. The same seal of Lugal-engar is found in the Umma text OrNS 47-49, 149 (Lugal-engar-e); cp. OrNS 47-49, 138 obv. 4: (small cattle) giri3 lugal-engar dumu lu2-den-lil2-la2. Line 1 of the seal legend ends in engar, with no room for a following -e. We should with W. Heimpel, BSA 7 (1993) 116, entertain the possibility that males are being substituted for the expected female kids, that is, that in specific contexts such as that of this text maš2 represents male kids and not “billy goats”.

 

§7. No. 7 = CMAA 002-C0011

Amar-Suen 7 / 4 / [  ], from Drehem

33x29x14mm

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Translation
obv. obv.
1)  13 udu niga 1)  13 fattened sheep,
2)  [   ] udu niga gu4-e us2-sa 2)  [     ] fattened sheep “attached to the ox”,
3)  [       ] maš2 gal niga 3)  [     ] fattened large billy goats,
4)  [u4  ]x-kam 4)  [     ]th [day],
5)  [ki ab-ba]-sa6-ga-ta 5)  from Abbasaga
rev. rev.
1) ˹na-lu5˺ i3-dab5 1)   Nalu accepted.
2)   (blank) 2)   (blank)
3) ˹iti˺ ki-siki-dnin-a-zu 3)   Month “weaving of Ninazu”,
4) ˹mu˺ ḫu-uḫ2-nu-riki ba-hul 4)   year: “Ḫuḫnuri was destroyed”.

 

§7a.  The phrase “attached to the ox” seems used exclusively to qualify fattened animals (instances of animals not additionally qualified with niga, “grain-fattened”, for example MVN 15, 193 obv. 2, 6, TIM 6, 8 obv. 1, 17, rev. 6, 8, and MVN 18, 376 [=AnOr 7, 376] obv. 4, record sacrificial animals otherwise qualified niga and so are no exception to this rule).

 

§8. No. 8 = CMAA 002-C0012

Amar-Suen 7 / 6 / 00, from Drehem

37x33x15mm

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Translation
obv. obv.
1)  [x ma]-˹na ku3-babbar˺ 1)  [     ] mana of silver,
2)  [d]nanna 2)  for Nanna,
3)  [x] ma-na ku3-babbar 3)  [     ] mana of silver,
4)  dnin-gal -e2-nun-na 4)  for Ningal-enuna,
5)   a-ru-a lugal 5)  royal offerings.
6)   ki lu2-dingir-ra-ta 6)  Out of Lu-dingira(’s account)
rev. rev.
1)   ba-zi 1)  booked.
2)   ša3 uri5ki-ma 2)  In Ur.
3)   iti a2-ki-ti 3)  Month “Akitu”,
4)   mu bi2-tum-[ra]-˹bi2˺-umki i3-[ab-ruki] 4)  year: “Bitum-rabium, Iabru with its territories,
            ma-daki[-bi u3] ˹ḫu˺-uḫ2-[nu-riki ba-ḫul]             and Ḫuḫnuri [were destroyed]”.
left edge left edge
1)   [        ] ˹ma˺-na 1)  [n] mana (of silver)

 

§8a. This text belongs to the so-called “treasury” archive, for which see most recently W. Sallaberger, OBO 160/3, 240-252.

 

§9. No. 9 = CMAA 002-C0013

Shu-Sin 2 / 6 / 17-18, from Drehem

30x28x16mm

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Translation
obv. obv.
1)  2 udu 1)  2 sheep,
2)  3 ud5 2)  3 nanny goats,
3)  šu-gid2 3)  shugid offerings,
4)  u4 17-kam 4)  the 17th day,
5)  ki ta2-ḫi-iš-a-tal-ta 5)  from Taḫiš-atal,
rev. rev.
1)  1 gu4 1 ab2 1)  1 ox, 1 cow,
2)  u4 18-kam 2)  the 18th day,
3)  ki in-ta-e3-a-ta 3)  from Inta’ea,
4)  du11-ga i3-dab5 4)  Duga accepted.
5)  iti a2-ki-ti 5)  Month “Akitu”,
6)  mu ma2 den-ki ba-dim2 6)  year: “The boat of Enki was fashioned”.

 

§9a. The Drehem tablets PDT 1, 404, AUCT 3, 127, 129, 139 etc., contain parallel accounts, regularly sealed by Ur-mes, recording the transfer from Taḫiš-atal of a number of animals to the official responsibility of Duga. Many more records, including MVN 13, 404, MVN 15, 276, PDT 1, 185, etc. (and see the following text), document the same movement of animals from Inta’ea. Both men regularly received (i3-dab5) animals from the Drehem official Abbasaga (Taḫiš-atal for instance in AUCT 1, 195, BIN 3, 167 and Iraq 41, 125 no. 4, Inta’ea in MVN 13, 449, 473, and AAICAB. 1, pl. 78, 1924-1788). Following BIN 3, 599 rev, 7, Duga appears to be an abbreviation of Duga-Baba.

 

§10. No. 10 = CMAA 002-C0014

Shu-Sin 2 / 11 / 14, from Drehem

35x32x17mm

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Translation
obv. obv.
1)  1 gu4 1)  1 ox,
2)  25 udu 2)  25 sheep,
3)  55 maš2 gal 3)  55 large billy goats,
4)  2 sila4 4)  2 lambs,
5)  u4 14-kam 5)  the 14th day,
6)  ša3-bi-˹ta˺ 6)  Therefrom:
7)  1 gu4 giš x-˹la2-ni-še3?˺ (?) 7)  1 ox for the plow ... (?),
8)  1.22 ˹udu al-la-x˺ [     ] 8)  82 sheep for Alla ... (?),
rev. rev.
1)  ki in-ta-e3-a-ta 1)  from Inta’ea
2)  du11-ga i3-dab5 2)  Duga accepted.
3)  iti ezen-me-ki-gal2 3)  Month “mekigal festival”,
4)  mu ma2 dara3-abzu ba-ab-du8 4)  year: “the boat ‘ibex of the abzu’ was caulked”.

 

§10a. See the note to the previous, and the following text.

 

§11. No. 11 = CMAA 002-C0015

Shu-Sin 9 / 8 / 00, from Drehem

40x33x14mm

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Translation
obv. obv.
1)  10 udu kišib lu2-sag10 1)  10 sheep, sealed (document) of Lu-sag,
2)  2 udu kišib ur-diškur šabra 2)  2 sheep, sealed (document) of Ur-Ishkur šabra,
3)  1 udu kišib ḫa-ba-mu 3)  1 sheep, sealed (document) of Habamu,
4)  1 udu kišib i3-li2-a 4)  1 sheep, sealed (document) of Ilia,
5)  4 udu ur-šu muḫaldim 5)  4 sheep of the cook Uršu,
6)  1 udu kišib ur-sukkal 6)  1 sheep, sealed (document) of Ur-sukkal,
7)  1 udu ri-im-i3-li2 7)  1 sheep of Rim-ili,
rev. rev.
1)  ab-ba-kal-la šu ba-ti 1)  Abbakala received.
2)  iti ezen-dšul-gi 2)  Month “Shulgi festival”,
3)  mu e2 dšara2 ba-du3 3)  year: “The house of Shara was built”.
left edge left edge
1)  20 1)  20
seal seal
1)  ab-ba-kal-la 1)  Abbakala,
2)  dub-sar 2)  scribe,
3)  dumu lu2-dnin-gir2-su 3)  son of Lu-Ningirsu.

 

§11a. Abbakala is probably brother of the official Ur-kununa seen above (cp. MVN 15, 259, 261, etc. [more than a hundred occurences], in the extended seal legends of which the father Lu-Ningirsu is qualified as kurušda, “fattener” [late Shulgi and Amar-Suen seal impressions of the same official exhibit instead sipa na-kab-tum, “herder of the nakabtum”]). The same seal is found, for instance, on the texts MVN 15, 271, 272, PDT 2, 1043, 1044, 1045, 1046, and 1055. Such texts as the following one, and SAT 3, 1346, suggest that the receiving official Duga(-Baba) was as well a son of the same Lu-Ningirsu.


§12. No. 12 = CMAA 002-C0016

Shu-Sin 9 / 10 / 00, from Drehem

37x32x14mm

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Translation
obv. obv.
1)  26 ˹udu u2?˺ 1)  26 grass(-fed) sheep?,
2)  ki dšul-gi-i3-li2-ta 2)  from Shulgi-ili
3)  ur-ku3-nun-na 3)  Ur-kununa
4)  i3-dab5 4)  accepted.
rev. rev.
1)  iti ezen-maḫ 1)  Month “big festival”,
2)  mu e2 dšara2 ummaki ba-du3 2)  year: “the house of Shara in Umma was built”.
 
seal seal
1)  du11-ga dub-sar 1)  Duga, scribe,
2)  dumu lu2-dnin-gir2-su 2)  son of Lu-Ningirsu,
3) sipa na-kab-tum 3)  herdsman of the Nakabtum.

 

§12a. The scribe Duga often seals for his brother Urkununa (see the note to the preceding text and for instance AnOr 7, 47 [received from Urkununa!], BCT 1, 61). MVN 8, 216 (Shulgi 46), UDT 165 (Amar-Suen 2) and PDT 2, 949 (AS 5) demonstrate that Urkununa did use his own seal in the period before the reign of Shu-Sin.

 

§13. No. 13 = CMAA 002-C0017

Ibbi-Sin 1 / 9 / [   ], from Drehem

40x33x17mm

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Translation
obv. obv.
1)  [               ] ˹gu4˺ u2 1)  [     ] grass(-fed) oxen,
2) ˹5 udu˺ u2 2)  5 grass(-fed) small cattle,
3)  15 maš2 gaba 3)  15 unweaned billy goats,
4) ˹šu˺-gid2 e2 muḫaldim 4)  shugid offerings for the household of the cook
5)  mu aga3-us2 u3˹lu2˺ šuku-ra-ke4-ne[-še3] 5)  in the name of the royal guard and prebend-holders.
6)  ir11-mu ˹maškim˺ 6)  Irmu was maškim.
rev. rev.
1)  [u4 n-kam] 1)  [nth day].
2)  [ki    -]x[-   -ta] 2)  [Out of PN’s (account)]
3)  [ba]-˹zi˺ 3)  booked.
4) ˹giri3˺ d˹nanna˺-[ma-ba] dub-[sar| 4)  Via: Nanna-[maba] the scribe.
5)  iti ezen-dšu-d˹suen˺ 5)  Month “Shu-Sin festival”,
6) ˹mu˺ di-bi2-dsuen lugal 6)  year: “Ibbi-Sin is king”.
left edge left edge
1)  [   ]+1 gu4 [20] ˹udu˺ 1)   [   ]+1 oxen, [20] small cattle

 

§13a. Compare the parallel text Fs. Levine 132-138 (YBC 4190).

 

§14. No. 14 (loan to the CMAA)

Shulgi 39 / 7 / 00, from Umma

41x36x20

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Translation
obv. obv.
1)  1;0,0 naga gur 1)  1 gur of alkali-plant
2)  ki a-kal-la dub-sar dam-gar3-ta 2)  from Akalla, scribe of the exchange agents,
3)  dingir-ra-ke4 šu ba-ti 3)  Dingira received.
4)  iti min-eš3 4)  Month “mineš”,
rev. rev.
1)  mu puzur4-˹da-gan ba-du3˺ 1)  year: “Puzrish-Dagan was built”.
seal seal
(i) (i)
1)  ur-dli9-si4 1)   Ur-Lisi
2)  ensi2 2)   ensi
3)  ummaki 3)   of Umma:
4)  lu2-du10-ga 4)   Lu-duga,
(ii) (ii)
1)  dub-sar 1)   scribe,
2)  dumu nigarx(NIGIN3)gar-ki-du10 2)   son of Nigar-kidu
3)  gal5-la2-gal 3)   the great galla,
4)  ir11-zu 4)   your servant.

 

§14a. The transliteration follows the inscription of the text’s envelope (the tablet has not been removed from this covering). Lu-duga otherwise seals regularly for Dadaga, for instance on SACT 2, 97 (Shulgi 38), Aleppo 380, MVN 14, 66, Nik 2, 277 (Shulgi 39), Aleppo 382, 383, 384, Hirose 346, MVN 14, 50 (Shulgi 40), Aleppo 385, 386, 387, 388 (Shulgi 41), MVN 14, 10 (Shulgi 42). Note SACT 2, 117: dingir-ra-ke4 i3-dab5 a workman, sealed by Ur-Lisi; the Aleppo 13 (no year) seal has simply 1) lu2-du10-ga 2) dub-sar 3) dumu nigarx(NIGIN3)gar-ki-du10 4) gal5-la2-gal. Finally, A. Uchitel, Mycenaean 7 (=AAICAB 1, pl. 69-70, 1924-668) obv ii 9: 3 ama-gi-na dumu lu2-du10-ga dumu gal5-la2-gal; Or. 47-49, 500 rev. i 4: 1;0,1 nigarx(NIGIN3)gar-ki-du10 ugula gal5-la2-gal.

 

§15. No. 15 = CMAA 015-C0017

Shu-Sin 4 - 00 - 00, from Umma

113x67x28mm

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Translation
obv. i obv. i
1)  e giškiri6-gu-la-ta 1)  From the ditch of the “great orchard”,
2)  3 ninda gid2 5 gin2-ta 2)  3 ninda length at 5 (volume-)shekels per (ninda),
3)  kin-bi 15 gin2 3)  its work: 15 (volume-)shekels;
4)  2 ninda gid2 15 gin2-ta 4)  2 ninda length at 15 (volume-)shekels per (ninda),
5)  kin-bi 1/2 sar 5)  its work: 1/2 (volume-)sar;
6)  ša3 kab2-ku5 6)  in “the reservoir”.
7)  5 ninda gid2 10 gin2-ta 7)  5 ninda length at 10 (volume-)shekels per (ninda),
8)  kin-bi 5/6 sar 8)  its work: 5/6 (volume-)sar;
9)  20 ninda gid2 7 gin2-ta 9)  20 ninda length at 7 (volume-)shekels per (ninda),
10)  kin-bi 2 1/3 sar 10)  its work: 2 1/3 (volume-)sar;
11) 15 ninda gid2 15 gin2-ta 11)  15 ninda length at 15 (volume-)shekels per (ninda),
12)  kin-bi 3 2/3 sar 5 gin2 12)  its work: 3 2/3 (volume-)sar 5 (volume-)shekels;
13)  40 ninda gid2 10 gin2-ta 13)  40 ninda length at 10 (volume-)shekels per (ninda),
14)  kin-bi 6 2/3 sar 14)  its work: 6 2/3 (volume-)sar;
15)  45 ninda gid2 15 gin2-ta 15)  45 ninda length at 15 (volume-)shekels per (ninda),
16)  kin-bi 11 sar 15 gin2 16)  its work: 11 (volume-)sar 15 (volume-)shekels;
17)  e zi-DU 17)  ziDU ditch.
18)  5 ninda gid2 5 gin2-ta 18)  5 ninda length at 5 (volume-)shekels per (ninda),
19)  kin-bi 1/3 sar 5 gin2 19)  its work: 1/3 (volume-)sar 5 (volume-)shekels;
20)  1 1/2 ninda gid2 1/2 sar-ta 20)  1 1/2 ninda length at 1/2 (volume-)sar per (ninda),
21)  kin-bi 2/3 sar 5 gin2 21)  its work: 2/3 (volume-)sar 5 (volume-)shekels;
22)  53 1/2 ninda gid2 1/3 sar-ta 22)  53 1/2 ninda length at 1/3 (volume-)sar per (ninda),
23)  kin-bi 17 5/6 sar 23)  its work: 17 5/6 (volume-)sar;
obv. ii obv. ii
1)  10 ninda gid2 2/3 sar-ta 1)  10 ninda length at 2/3 (volume-)sar per (ninda),
2)  kin-bi 6 2/3 sar 2)  its work: 6 2/3 (volume-)sar;
3)  10 ninda gid2 15 gin2-ta 3)  10 ninda length at 15 (volume-)shekels per (ninda),
4)  kin-bi 2 1/2 sar 4)  its work: 2 1/2 (volume-)sar;
5)  20 ninda gid2 10 gin2-ta 5)  20 ninda length at 10 (volume-)shekels per (ninda),
6)  kin-bi 3 1/3 sar 6)  its work: 3 1/3 (volume-)sar;
7)  20 ninda gid2 1/2 sar-ta 7)  20 ninda length at 1/2 (volume-)sar per (ninda),
8)  kin-bi 10 sar 8)  its work: 10 (volume-)sar;
9)  12 ninda gid2 1/3 sar-[ta] 9)  12 ninda length at 1/3 (volume-)sar [per (ninda)],
10)  kin-bi 4 sar 10)  its work: 4 (volume-)sar;
11)  36 ninda gid2 1/2 sar-ta 5 sar saḫar dah 11)  36 ninda length at 1/2 (volume-)sar per (ninda),
       5 (volume)sar of soil extra,
12)  kin-bi 23 sar 12)  its work: 23 (volume-)sar;
13)  3 ninda gid2 1 sar-ta 13)  3 ninda length at 1 (volume-)sar per (ninda),
14)  kin-bi 3 sar 14)  its work: 3 (volume-)sar;
15)  19 ninda gid2 1/3 sar-ta 15)  19 ninda length at 1/3 (volume-)sar per (ninda),
16)  kin-bi 6 1/3 sar 16)  its work: 6 1/3 (volume-)sar;
17)  20 ninda gid2 10 gin2-ta 17)  20 ninda length at 10 (volume-)shekels per (ninda),
18)  kin-bi 3 1/3 sar 18)  its work: 3 1/3 (volume-)sar;
19)  10 ninda gid2 1/2 sar-ta 19)  10 ninda length at 1/2 (volume-)sar per (ninda),
20)  kin-bi 5 sar 20)  its work: 5 (volume-)sar;
21)  15 ninda gid2 1/3 sar-ta 21)  15 ninda length at 1/3 (volume-)sar per (ninda),
22)  kin-bi 5 sar 22)  its work: 5 (volume-)sar;
23)  18 ninda gid2 15 gin2-ta 23)  18 ninda length at 15 (volume-)shekels per (ninda),
24)  kin-bi 4 1/2 sar 24)  its work: 4 1/2 (volume-)sar;
rev. i rev. i
1)  27 ninda gid2 10 gin2-ta 1)  27 ninda length at 10 (volume-)shekels per (ninda),
2)  kin-bi 5 2/3 sar (sic) 2)  its work: 5 2/3 (volume-)sar;
3)  15 ninda gid2 nu-tuku 3)  15 ninda length: not having (work),
4)  šu-murgu2-še3 4)  to shu-murgu.
5)  (blank) 5)  (blank)
6)  1.20 ninda gid2 1/3 sar-ta 6)  80 ninda length at 1/3 (volume-)sar per (ninda),
7)  kin-bi 26 2/3 sar 7)  its work: 26 2/3 (volume-)sar;
8)  e e2-lugal-še3 8)  to the ditch of royal household,
9)  e sa-dur2-ra a-ga-an-du-ul 9)  sadur and agandul ditch.
10)  ka giš-gi-ta 10)  From the reed thicket opening (literally: “(canal) mouth”)
11)  30 ninda gid2 1/2 ninda dagal 1 kuš3 buru3 11)  30 ninda length 1/2 ninda width 1 cubit depth,
12)  saḫar-bi 15 sar 12)  its soil: 15 (volume-)sar;
13)  x e e2-lugal-še3 13)  to the x ditch of royal household,
14)  40 ninda gid2 1 1/2 kuš3 buru3 14)  40 ninda length 1 1/2 cubits depth,
15) ˹saḫar-bi˺ 30 sar 15)  its soil: 30 (volume-)sar;
16)  x x x -še3 16)  to the ... ,
17)  [30] ninda gid2 2 ˹kuš3 buru3˺ 17)  [30] ninda length 2 cubits depth,
18)  saḫar-bi 30 sar 18)  its soil: 30 (volume-)sar;
19)  50 ninda gid2 1 1/2 kuš3 buru3 19)  50 ninda length 1 1/2 cubits depth,
20)  saḫar-bi 37 1/2 sar 20)  its soil: 37 1/2 (volume-)sar;
21)  30 ninda gid2 2 kuš3 buru3 21)  30 ninda length 2 cubits depth,
22)  saḫar-bi 30 sar 22)  its soil: 30 (volume-)sar;
23)  11 1/2 ninda gid2 2 1/2 kuš3 buru3 23)  11 1/2 ninda length 2 1/2 cubits depth,
24)  saḫar-bi 14 1/3 sar 2 1/2 gin2 24)  its soil: 14 1/3 (volume-)sar  2 1/2 (volume-)shekels;
25)  i7 lu2-maḫ 25)  Lumaḫ canal,
rev. ii rev. ii
1)  (blank) 1)  (blank)
2)  ŠU+NIGIN2 8.25 ninda gid2 2)  Total: 505 ninda length,
3)  ŠU+NIGIN2 saḫar-bi 5.10 sar 17 1/2 gin2 3)  total, its soil: 310 (volume-)sar
      17 1/2 (volume)shekels
4)  (blank) 4)  (blank)
5)  kin e ra-a 5)  Work, canal “striking”.
6)  a-ša3 en-du8-du 6)  Endudu field.
7)  mu bad3 mar-tu ba-du3 7)  Year: “The Amorite wall was built”.

 

§15a. The four-column labor account from the collection of the CMAA published by D. Foxvog in ASJ 8, 59-69, contains many of the same toponyms as this canal excavation text and thus doubtless derives from the same bureaucratic archive. These toponyms include giš-gu-la (probably a variant of giškiri6-gu-la) in obv. i 12 (workers assigned to fill the canal bank toward the “great woods (=orchard)”); en-du8-du in obv. ii 1 and 15 (latter reference to our kab2-ku5, “reservoir”); e e2-lugal in obv. ii 8.

 

§15b. To the “great orchard” see AnOr 7, 186 obv. 2: GAN2 giškiri6-gu-la; AnOr 7, 282 obv. i. 7': giškiri6-gu-la.

The kab2-ku5 doubtless refers to the kab2-ku5 en-du8-du, “reservoir of (the field) Endudu”, known for instance from the Umma texts MVN 15, 94 (=JCS 24,172 94) obv. ii 9, AAICAB 1, pl. 75, 1924-695 obv. 5, M. Civil, Georgica 2.03 (A 4270) 5, and JCS 39,125 13 rev. 6.

 

§15c. The ziDU ditch is attested in MVN 14, 215 obv. 2: e zi-DU-da lu2-maḫ; UTI 3, 1829 20: e zi-DU gub-ba; UTI 4, 2372 1-2: 1.30 sar kin u2-saḫar-ba / e zi-DU gu2 a-ga-am za3-i2-us2 / 23 1/3 sar kin u2-saḫar-ba / e zi-DU a2 sukkal-maḫ; UTI 4, 2598 2: a-da gub-ba e zi-DU a2-huš (Gomi: ll. 2-3: “Die Lesung e zi-DU a2-ḫuš ist nicht ohne Zweifel. Vgl. SNAT 438 Rs. 7, wo ein e zi-DU a2-šagina (GIR3.NITA2) belegt ist”); UTI 4, 2881 16:  35 guruš u4 1-še3 e zi-DU; etc., often with records of excavation work or water management. Civil, Georgica, 129-130, translates “barrage embankments.”

 

§15d. The field a-ga-an-du-ul is known from other texts in association with other fields mentioned here, for instance in M. Civil, Georgica 2.03 with a-ša3 en-du8-du, and in SNAT 482 with giškiri6-gu-la.

Although only known from two further texts (MVN 16, 912 rev. ii 1 and 961 rev. 4), the signification of kin e ra-a as a means of describing the excavation of canals seems straightforward.

 

§15e. The group of fields (German: Flur) known in many Umma texts as EN.GABA.DU is in various publications transliterated en-gaba-du or en-gaba-ra2, without apparent evidence for one reading over the other. en-du8-du is also chosen as a conventional option.

 

Calculations (n = ninda, ca. 6 meters; g = gin2, ca. 3/10 m3; s = sar, ca. 18 m3; k = kuš2, ca. 1/2 meter):

 

  n gid2   g/s-ta       kin-bi  
obv. i             from e giškiri6-gu-la
  3n x 5g     = 15g  
  2n x 15g     = 1/2s ša3 kab2-ku5
  5n x 10g     = 5/6s  
  20n x 7g     = 2 1/3s  
  15n x 15g     = 3 2/3s 5g  
  40n x 10g     = 6 2/3s  
  45n x 15g     = 11s 15g e zi-DU
  5n x 5g     = 2/3s 5g  
  1 1/2n x 1/2s     = 2/3s 5g  
  53 1/2n x 1/3s     = 17 5/6s  
obv. ii              
  10n x 2/3s     = 6 2/3s  
  10n x 15g     = 2 1/2s  
  20n x 10g     = 3 1/3s  
  20n x 1/2s     = 10s  
  12n x 1/3s     = 4s  
  36n x 1/2s (+5s)     = 23s  
  3n x 1s     = 3s  
  19n x 1/3s     = 6 1/3s  
  20n x 10g     = 3 1/3s  
  10n x 1/2s     = 5s  
  15n x 1/3s     = 5s  
  18n x 15g     = 4 1/2s  
rev. i              
  27n x 10g     = 5 2/3s  
  15n x nu-tuku         to šu-murgu2
  80n x 1/3s     = 26 2/3s to e e2-lugal
  ------             e sa-dur2-ra a-ga-an-du-ul
  505                  8.25n SN
                 
  n gid2   n dagal   k buru3 saḫar-bi
rev. i             from ka giš-gi
  30n x 1/2n x 1k = 15s to ...
  40n x (1/2n) x 1 1/2k = 30s  
  30n x (1/2n) x 2k = 30s  
  50n x (1/2n) x 1 1/2k = 37 1/2s  
  30n x (1/2n) x 2k = 30s  
  11 1/2n x (1/2n) x 2 1/2k = 14 1/3s 2 1/2g lu2-maḫ canal
  ------           ------------
  (191.5)           310s 17.5g
                     5.10s 17 1/2g SN

Version: 11 September 2002