Notes on Year Names of the Early Ur III Period: Šulgi 20-30: Notes

1  The Sigrist & Damerow (2001) lists of year names appear as web-pages within the CDLI web domain and have not been formally published. Since these were originally used as the basis for dating the tablets in the CDLI catalogue, it is necessary to refer to them here, slightly updated with current readings. Therefore, for the sake of completeness, the relevant part of the Sigrist & Damerow lists of year names has been included below as Appendix A.

 

2  BE 1/2, 125, is transcribed by Ungnad (1938: 137-138) and discussed by Kraus (1951). OrNS 54, 299-303, is considered by Wilcke (1985).

 

3  There are examples in tablets containing sequences of dates where the scribes included some quite severe abbreviations in the year names, but they are not ambiguous because the abbreviated date can be interpreted in relation to the sequence of dates.

 

4  Statistically, CatBM 2 lists a markedly low number of tablets for the year Ibbi-Suen 3. Therefore, it seems likely that a number of the tablets listed in that catalogue as Šulgi 25 might actually be attributed to Ibbi-Suen 3. However, since many of these tablets have not been published, it is not readily possible to check this observation. It is also worth noting that CatBM 3 does not list any tablets for Šulgi 25 and only a small number for Ibbi-Suen 3, but lists a relatively large number for Šulgi 44. This would seem to indicate that Šulgi 44 was used as the default option for tablets with the year name ‘mu si-mu-ru-umki ba-ḫul’ in CatBM 3.

 

5  Pertinent pages from CDLI’s Wiki site, since this year hosted by Oxford University (<http://cdli.ox.ac.uk/wiki/doku.php?id=shulgi>), give a summary of the lists of tablets and year names for Šulgi 21 to 29. The web-page dedicated to these years excludes an explicit list of tablets for Šulgi 30 because it would exceed 150 tablets, but such a list can readily be obtained using the link provided on that web page.

 

6  For 20a, Sigrist & Damerow read dnin-ḫur-sag e2-nu-tur (Ninḫursag of Enutur) instead of dnin-ḫur-sag-ga2 nu-tur (Ninḫursaga of Nutur, as given by Frayne), although the reference is given as Wilcke (1985: 302) who gives the reading, dnin-ḫur-sag-ga2 NU.x.

 

7  BCT 2, 3; BPOA 7, 1745; JAC 24, 62 12; MVN 21, 270; Nebraska 62; SANTAG 6, 1. Note also BPOA 6, 983 (Umma) left 1: mu nig2-ka! ak al-la.

 

8  ASJ 9, 274 88; BIN 5, 89; BPOA 2, 2422; BPOA 6, 931; MVN 4, 68; MVN 20, 83; SAT 2, 638, 639.

 

9  Sigrist & Damerow translate this as “second year after the accounts of the pickax (sic) were made”.

 

10  Sigrist & Damerow (2001) list the unpublished Girsu tablet BM 23455 as an example of a text that includes year name 23*; however, CatBM 2, p. 266, gives the date of that tablet as Šulgi 7, although details of the year name are not quoted. CatBM 2, p. 134, states that the unpublished Girsu tablet, BM 19298, is dated Šulgi 23, although again the year name is not given. In addition, the CDLI catalogue also lists the unpublished Girsu tablet BM 109555 as being dated Šulgi 23.

 

11   ANM 3953 (unpublished); BIN 5, 52; BPOA 6, 1234; BPOA 6, 1350; MVN 4, 135; PPAC 4, 130, 131; Princeton 1, 562; SANTAG 6, 2, 3; SANTAG 7, 24; SAT 2, 644; Syracuse 403.

 

12  BIN 5, 26; BPOA 6, 1098; MVN 15, 208; TCNU 536. It also appears on PPAC 4, 133, where the provenience is unclear. RA 79, 32 26, is dated to Šulgi 41 based on the seal.

 

13  Found on the following tablets from Umma: BPOA 1, 1710; BPOA 6, 1068; MVN 13, 214; MVN 15, 296; NYPL 170, 318; PPAC 4, 132; SANTAG 6, 5; TSU 13; YOS 18, 77.

 

14  Found on the following tablets from Umma: AAS 52, 91; Atiqot 4, pl. 9 48; BCT 2, 46; BPOA 6, 1062, 1346, 1494; Gratz AJS 3 Mes 1; MVN 1, 187; MVN 4, 42, 51, 102, 126, 134, 163; MVN 13, 175; Nebraska 48; NYPL 175; OrSP 47-49, 460; Princeton 2, 13; SANTAG 6, 8, 10; Syracuse 324, 325; TJA pl. 56 IOS 27; TJA pl. 61 IOS 41.

 

15  For the sake of completeness, it is noted that mu us2-sa e2 |PU3.ŠA|-da-gan ba-du3 mu 2-kam us2-bi (or close variants) appears on MVN 3, 192; MVN 13, 316; SAT 2, 264; YOS 4, 99; and mu e2 |PU3.ŠA| mu us2-sa a-ra2 3 on OrSP 47-49, 205. These tablets are all from Umma, except YOS 4, 99, from Girsu and AUCT 1, 791, whose provenience is unclear.

 

16  The fuller form of this year name is given on the following tablets from Umma: BPOA 6, 977, 1092, 1380; BPOA 7, 1662; MVN 1, 186, 212; MVN 4 103, 137, 160; MVN 21, 271, 272; PPAC 4, 134; SANTAG 6, 4; SAT 2, 641, 643; YOS 4, 322.

 

17  It is noted that the year name 45b listed by Sigrist & Damerow as Šulgi 45 is effectively identical to that for Šulgi 44 and so is assumed to be an error.

 

18  It is also worth making the practical point that there is usually a limit to the level of precision that modern researchers could hope to achieve for dating a tablet based on the contents of the tablet other than a year name.

 

19  The fuller form of this year name is given on the following tablets from Umma: BPOA 6, 1149, 1192; MVN 4, 54; Nik 2, 422; Princeton 1, 545; TSU 20; YOS 18, 96.

 

20  CDLJ 2007/1, §3.06 (Umma); JCS 28, 213 20 (Umma); MVN 6, 116 (Girsu); SET 134 (Umma); TRU 1 (Drehem); UET 3, 295 (Ur); USC 6624 (Drehem); and possibly on TRU 2 (Drehem).

 

21  More correctly, the hand copy of the Istanbul text MVN 6, 128 (from Girsu), rev. 10 reads mu d˹šul˺-[gi] nita kal-ga lugal an ub-da limmu5-ba-ke4 si-mu-ur4-umki a-ra2 2-kam-aš mu-ḫul-a mu us2-sa-bi. That is, the text has the unusual orthography limmu5 (the sign ZA), not limmu2 (TAB.TAB) as given by Sigrist & Damerow.

 

22  Aleppo 133, 292; BPOA 7, 2399; Ontario 2, 312 (all from Umma).

 

23  SACT 2, 267, has the 4-line seal legend: ur-dšara2 / dub-sar / dumu lugal-ušur3 / nu-banda3-gu4 dšara2, which appears on 25 tablets dated Šulgi 31-43. SAT 3, 2043, has the text sequence ki ARAD2 da-da-a šu ba-ti, which appears on 9 tablets dated Šulgi 32 to Šulgi 48. Within this ‘window’ of Šulgi 32-43, only Šulgi 37* and Šulgi 41 could have the abbreviation mu us2-sa a-ra2 2-kam. (For Šulgi 41, see the Umma tablet, SAT 2, 264: mu us2-sa e2 |PU3.ŠA|-da-gan ba-du3 mu a-ra2 2-kam.)

 

24  The same year name is repeated in an index of CatBM 3 (p. 332) but omits the sign nita.

 

25  CST 739 (Umma); Fs Greenfield 617 6 (Umma); JCS 31, 133 1 (Drehem); MVN 9, 104 (Umma), 105 (Drehem); MVN 15, 242 (Drehem); NATN 230, 235, 242, 386 (all from Umma); SAT 2, 6 (Drehem); UET 3, 289, 290 (Ur). Note the use of both en-nam-šita and en-nam-šita4.

 

26  Other abbreviations of a similar type include: DoCu 236 (Umma) with mu en den-ki x ˹ba˺-[ḫun?]; NATN 382 (Umma) with mu en den-ki ba-gub-ba x; and SAT 2, 5 (Umma), with mu en den-ki eriduki ba-ḫun-ga2.

 

27  The same year name is given as šita3 on CatBM 3, p. 181.

 

28  CatBM 3, p. 247, also lists BM 85129 as being dated to Ibbi-Suen 11 but the year name is not given explicitly and so it is not readily possible to verify this date.

 

29  Strictly, Watson used the Schneider dating scheme and thus dated the tablet to Šulgi 42, suggesting that the reader should correct this by adding two years (Watson 1993: 3).

 

30  Firth, Šulgi 31-48, forthcoming

 

31  AS 17, 35 27; ASJ 11, 323 07; AUCT 3, 233; BBVO 11, 292, 6N-T606+; Iraq 22, pl. 20 6N-T850; MVN 16, 739; NATN 184, 729+764, 897, 947, 973; NRVN 1, 34, 171, 188; TMH NF 1-2, 67. Later tablets from Nippur also use mu ab-us2-sa (Firth, “Šulgi 31-48,” forthcoming).