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The Names of the Leaders and Diplomats
of Marḫaši and Related Men in the
Ur III Dynasty

Chen Yanli <chenyanli_520@163.com>
Qujing Normal University

Wu Yuhong <wuyuhong@foxmail.com>
Northwest Normal University

Keywords
Cuneiform, Ur III, Diplomacy, Marhaši



§1. Introduction[1]
§1.1.
This article will investigate, on the basis of the administrative tablets from Puzriš-Dagan, the leaders of Marḫaši, a country near Elam in modern Iran that enjoyed good relations with the Ur III Dynasty. We will investigate the leaders of Marḫaši and their diplomats or ambassadors (lu2 kin-gi4-a) in Sumer, as well as their contacts in the Ur Empire. We suppose that if a leader or king of Marḫaši was called “man of Marḫaši” by the Ur court, this might indicate that there was no formal relationship between Ur and Marḫaši. However, if they bore the title “governor (ensi2) of Marḫaši,” this might indicate the opposite, that Marḫaši, technically at least in the eyes of Ur, had established a formal relationship with Ur, and may have been considered (in name only) vassals of the Ur dynasty. Since some names in published transliterations have multiple readings, our collations of those names and related words are part of our main work as well.

 

§1.2. In surviving records, the first Sumerian king to conquer Marḫaši was Lugal-an-ne2(or na)-mu-un-du3 (or du), king of the Adab dynasty, but this text is known only from two copies dated to the Old Babylonian period (one each from the reigns of Abi-Ešuḫ and Ammisaduqa).

 

§1.2.1. RIME 1.1.8.1
This same king is noted in the Sumerian King List as conqueror of the Ur II dynasty, who in turn lost the kingship to Mari (see the Sumerian King List). In this inscription, Lugal-anne-mundu defeats 13 rebel kings under the leadership of Migir-Enlil of Marḫaši, and subjugates the “Four Quarters” of the world, i.e., from the Mediterranean to the Zagros Mountains, to his rule. His empire is said to have included the provinces of Elam, Marḫaši, Gutium, Subartu, the “Cedar Mountain” (Lebanon), Amurru (Amorites) or Martu, “Sutium” and “the Eanna Mountain.” The portion of his inscription about Marḫaši is as follows:

ll. 11-26): At that time, Migir-Enlil, the governor of Marḫaši, Enlil-ezzu, the governor of Ub, Šeš-Ke’el, the governor of Ke’el, Šu-Anum, the governor of “the Great Gate,” ...-elum, the governor of Amdama, Ibbi-Mama, the governor of Ardama, Nur-šu-eli, the governor of A..., Badganum, the governor of Zi..., Adad-šarrum, the governor of ..., Zumurtanu, [the governor of ...], Rim-šunu, [the governor of ...], Abi-ha[niš, the governor of ..., ...-bi-Maradda, the governor of ..., 13 “governors,” who did ..., ... raised up ...

ll. 51'-67'): [I, Lugal*-an-na-mu-un-du3], strong man ... Marḫaši, the beloved city ..., the city that Nim-nim (“the *Queen of the High Land”) with bronze šem-drums, ... [*I came] into Marḫaši, into the outskirts of the city. ... In the middle of Marḫaši ... the beautiful city of Enlil ... [I* restored it] to its (former) state. ... the E2-gan2-kalama, the temple of Enlil, ... according to the mouth of my nation, ... for the life of my people, ... the white ... the people of Sumer ... from the middle of Marḫaši ...

117'-155'): The chief ministers of the Cedar Mountain, Elam, Marḫaši, Gutium, Subartu, Amurru, Sutium and [*the Mountain of Eanna *came]. It was 60 men ... [I* sent] 60 fattened bulls, 420 [rams* to them]. ... [They* *came] into the middle of the temple of E2-nam-zu ... with divine encouragement ... for four days...

I am [Lugal*-an-na]-mu-[un*-du3], ... the king of Adab ..., ... who exercises the kingship. ... It was 360 bur3 of field that I seized there ..., and I have put there a residence. I set straight the ... there and was spending much time in it. I did not let the ... stay in the taverns. ... an area of 3 bur3 of field ... with the luxuriant grasses ... For the [*governors] of the Cedar Mountain, Elam, Marḫaši, Gutium, Subartu, Amurru, Sutium and the Mountain of Eanna, in their [*arrivals, I* made] them* sit on golden thrones, I placed the golden [gifts*] in their hands, and I placed golden [*objects] in their laps. Their [messengers* came*] in Adab into my [palace*], I have made them come, and ... I have made them come before me, ... much shade I indeed ... there. When ... have passed, the ... *go for all future days. The many [*statues] of Enlil I have raised up, their ..., how is it that I am a just king? ..., I returned them to everywhere and their countries. ... of Adab and its land to his city, ... I had carried in. May... he not reduce them there! May ... he not destroy them! [After]wards, may Dingir-maḫ, the mistress of the E2-nam-zu temple, grant life to all the ruler of the Cedar Mountains, Elam, Marḫaši, Gutium, Subartu, Amurru, Sutium, and the Eanna Mountain who does not cut off the established cattle and sheep offerings, and who does not cut off those regular provisions from her mouth!

§1.2.2. RIME 2.1.1.8 ll. 37-109
In the Old Akkadian period, Sargon, Rimuš and Naram-Sin, too, launched campaigns to conquer again the lands of Elam and Marḫaši which was called Paraḫšum in the Old Akkadian language. Sargon bore the title “the king of Kish (or the world) and the conqueror of Elam and Paraḫšum” and claims that he captured SaNAM-šimut, a governor of Elam, Luḫ’iš’an, son of Ḫisibrasini, king of Elam, Ulul, a general of Paraḫšum, Dagu, brother of the king of Paraḫšum, Sidga’u, a general of Paraḫšum, Kundupum, a judge of Paraḫšum and the Booty of Susa. Ḫisibrasini, king of Elam and the governor of Širiḫum, a neighboring state, were captured, too. His inscriptions are as follows:

Sargon is king of the world and conqueror of Elam and Paraḫšum (pa2/ba-ra-ah-šumki). For the one who shall remove this inscription, may the gods Enlil, Šamaš and Ištar tear out his foundations and pluck up his seed!
(Colophon 1) Inscription on a socle.
(Caption 1) [...] (On the) left arm..., [ki ...], Elam ....
(Caption 2) Sargon, king of the world, the conqueror of Elam and Paraḫšum.
(Colophon 2) (Writing) Standing at his (Right) Side.
(Caption 3) Booty of Arawa.
(Caption 4) SaNAM-šimut, governor (viz, the general in RIME 2.1.1.9) of Elam.
(Caption 5) Luḫ’iš’an, the son of Ḫisibrasini, king of Elam.
(Caption 6) Booty of Sali’amu.
(Caption 7) Booty of Kardede.
(Caption 8) Ulul, general of Paraḫšum.
(Caption 9) Dagu, brother of the king of Paraḫšum.
(Caption 10) Booty of ḪEni.
(Caption 11) Booty of Bunban.
(Caption 12) Zina, governor of Ḫuzi-...,
(Caption 13) Ḫidarida-x, governor of Gunilaḫa.
(Caption 14) Booty of Sabum.
(Caption 15) Booty of Awan.
(Caption 16) Sidga’u, general of Paraḫšum.
(Caption 17) Kundupum, judge of Paraḫšum.
(Caption 18) Booty of Susa.
(Colophon 3) (Above are) on this socle. The ones who are with bound hands.

§1.2.3. RIME 2.1.1.9

(Surface a 1-47) For Enlil, Sargon, king of the world, conqueror of Elam and Paraḫšum, dedicated it to Enlil. For the one who shall remove this inscription, may Enlil and Šamaš both tear out his foundation, and pluck up his seed.
(Colophon 1) the Inscription on its socle.
(Caption 1') x-suhru, governor of Širiḫum.
(Caption 2') Sidga’u, general of Paraḫšum.
(Caption 3') SaNAM-šimut, general of Elam.
(Caption 4') Luḫ’iš’an, son of Ḫisibrasini, king of Elam. (Caption 5') Kundupum, judge of Paraḫšum.
(Caption 6') [...], ..., the eight ... men *of the two *rebel [*lands?], (and) eleven(?) cedar-wood weapons.
(Caption 7') Ḫisibrasini, king of Elam.
(Caption 8') Their ... are seized. They are (shown) oppressed in their handcuffs.

§1.2.4. RIME 2.1.2.6=7 (on a statue of Rimuš)
The main strategic direction of the second king Rimuš was Elam and Paraḫšum, and his famous title was the king of the world and conqueror of Elam and Paraḫšum, the same as one of Sargon's, his father. He defeated Abalgamaš, king of Paraḫšum, and captured Ḫisibrasini, his ally, king of Elam, who was captured by Sargon before and possibly submitted to him so was released. He again captured Sidgau, the general of Paraḫšum who was also captured by Sargon before, and the general of Zaḫara, his ally. Rimuš occupied Elam again and made Elam off the alliance of Paraḫšum. When he conquered Elam and Paraḫšum, he brought out 30 minas of gold, 3,600 minas of copper, 300 male and female slaves, and dedicated them to Enlil. Much booty from Elam and Paraḫšum was dedicated to Enlil by Rimuš, described as follows.

1-92) Rimuš, king of the world, was victorious in battle with Abalgamaš, king of Paraḫšum (pa2/ba-ra-ah-šumki). Further, Zahara and Elam had assembled in the center of Paraḫšum for battle, but he was (again) victorious. Then, he struck down 12,221? men, and he took 4,216 captives. Further, he captured *Ḫis(UD)-*ib-*ra-sini, king of Elam, and all the [...] of Elam. Further, he captured Sidga’u, the general of Paraḫšum and then he captured Sargapi, general of Zaḫara, in between (the cities) Awan and Susa by the Middle River. Then, he heaped up a burial mound at the site of a town over them. Furthermore, he conquered the cities of Elam, and destroyed their city walls, and he tore out the foundations of Paraḫšum from the country of Elam, and so Rimuš, king of the world, rules Elam (as) the god Enlil had disclosed (in an omen).

In the third year from the year when Enlil gave him the kingship, there were a total of 9,624 men (defeated), including the fallen dead,(and) including the captives. By the gods of Šamaš and Ilaba (Il3-a-ba4), I swear that (these) are not falsehoods but are indeed true! At the time of this battle, he created this statue of himself, and dedicated it to Enlil (for) his well-being.

(132-145) When he conquered Elam and Paraḫšum, he brought out 30 minas of gold, 3,600 minas of copper, 300 male and female slaves, and dedicated them to Enlil. (Colophon 2) It was written ..., at it’s ... .


RIME 2.1.2.11 in Nippur
For Enlil, Rimuš, king of the world, when he conquered Elam and Paraḫšum, presented this from the booty of Elam.

RIME 2.1.2.13 and 2.12.15 in Ur and Tutub
For Suen, Rimuš, king of the world, when he conquered Elam and Paraḫšum, presented this from the booty of Elam.

RIME 2.1.2.16 in Nagar (modern Tell Brak)
For ..., Rimuš, king of the world, when he conquered Elam and Paraḫšum, presented this from the booty of Elam.

RIME 2.1.2.17 in Ur:
Rimuš, king of the world and the conqueror of Elam and Paraḫšum.

§1.2.5. RIME 2.1.4.25 ll. 1-16
Naram-Sin, the fourth and greatest king of Akkad, also notes that he conquered Elam up to Paraḫšum:

Naram-Sin, king of Agade, commander of the world (Kiš) people, and of the land of Elam, all of it, up to Paraḫšum, and of the land of Subartum: up to the Forest of Cedar.

After the Ur III dynasty was overthrown by the army of Elam, the succeeding Old Babylonian dynasty defeated Elam up to the border of Marḫaši, and so the 30th year name of Hammurapi came to be:

Hammurapi, king, the mighty one, the beloved of Marduk, smashed, with the supreme power of the great gods, smashed the armed hordes of Elam from the border of Marḫaši, of Subartu, Gutium, Ešnunna and Malgium, who had come up in multitudes, and secured the foundations of Sumer and Akkad (RlA 2, 180, 1327).

Here note that the first four states are the same as those in the inscription of Lugal-anne-mundu, king of Adab.

 

§1.3. After the Old Akkadian dynasty, in order to secure Susa against Anšan, the Ur III dynasty needed to maintain a good relationship with Marḫaši. According to the year names of Šulgi 18, Šulgi gave his daughter to a king of Marḫaši as wife: Year: “Liwir-mitašu, the daughter of the king, was elevated to the queenship of Marḫaši” (mu li2-wir-mi-ta2-šu dumu-munus lugal nam-nin mar-ḫa-šiki ba-il2; RlA 2, 137 35). After having made a political marriage with Marḫaši, from his 23th year to 48th year, Šulgi conducted his eastern campaigns against the barbarian states behind Susa and Marḫaši in Iran. In the 23rd year, he conquered the land of Karaḫar, recorded in his 24th year name. In his 24th year, he conquered the land of Simurum for the first time, and in his 25th year, the troops of Ur destroyed Simurum for the second time. In his 26th year, he launched the first Ḫarši campaign and conquered this land in Iran. In his 29th year, a princess of Šulgi, was married to the son of “the governor of Anšan.” The fact that this lesser title is given to the king of Anšan, shows that Anšan, the land behind Karaḫar, Simurum and Ḫarši, had come to terms with the might of the Ur army and pursued to an alliance with Ur by means of a political marriage. In his 30th and 31st year, Šulgi struck Karaḫar for the second and third time, and in the 32nd year, he conquered Simurum for the third time. In his 34th, His vassal Anšan revolted against Ur, and was defeated by the Ur army, at which point all the enemy states in the northeast were subject to the Sumerian Empire. In his 36th year, Šulgi build a long wall against the enemy states, and all foreign states began to submit to the Ur Empire and continued to send diplomats with gifts of pilgrimage to the deified King Šulgi. Thus, Šulgi, in his 38th year, found it necessary to establish a royal stockyard in Puzriš-Dagan to manage all the livestock tribute from Sumer, Akkad, and foreign vassals as far as the frontiers of his kingdom. In his 41st year, he conquered the land of Šašrum for the first time.

 

§1.4. From Š 43 iii, Marḫaši, the land between Susa and Anšan, began to make alliance with Ur, and its kings bore the title first as “the man,” and later as “the governor” of Marḫaši. In Šulgi 43rd year, he conquered Simurum for the 9th time, in his 44th year, he struck Urbilum and Lullubu for the first time, and in his 45th-46th years, he conquered Kimaš and Ḫurti for the first time. In his 47th, the penultimate year, he destroyed Ḫarši for the second time.

 

§1.5. In Amar-Sin’s first year, the new king conquered Urbilum for the second time, and in AS 5-6, the king destroyed Šašrum for the second time and Huhnuri for the first time. During those northeastern campaign years, the “man” and “governor” of Marḫaši maintained a good relationship with Ur. Our investigation of these officials and their Ur counterparts are as follows.

 

§2. Ḫašip-atal, the man of Marḫaši (Š 43/iii – AS 1) with Lugalkagina, envoy of Sumer
§2.1. Ḫašip-atal, the general in Š 43 iii–46 iv

This name is mostly written as ḫa-ši-pa2-tal[2] and once ḫa-ši-ip-a-tal (TCL 2, 5488), a Hurrian name, who first sent 14 oxen to the Ur dynasty during Š 43 iii 22 after Šulgi conquered Šašrum on the upper Diyala in his 41st year (year name 42 describing the most important event that occurred in the previous year).

 

§2.2. Šu-salla, Tišandaḫi, Kimani, En-ili, Šulgi-ili, Šuruš-kin and other generals, captain and messengers with the ambassadors (lu2 kin-gi4-a) of the rulers (“man”) of Marḫaši
§2.2.1. Three years later, on Š 46 viii 6, after Šulgi conquered Urbilum (modern Erbil) in his 45th year (45' of the new Akiti calendar which began from the Akiti month, vi), Šu-sal-la, who appears later with the epithet “the east one” (ša12-ti-um)[3] and a Šuruš-kin, two Akkadian generals as envoys of Ur, accompanied an unnamed ambassador (lu2 kin-gi4-a) of the ruler (“man”) of Marḫaši to Sumer (Ḫašip-atal?). With him is also the ambassador of the ruler of Šišil. These two same foreigners, with many soldiers escorting them, ate meat at the kitchen of the palace. A Šu-salla delivered a lamb/kid tribute on Š 43 vii 7 (OIP 115, 159). On Š 47 x 9 (=48* iii; RA 74, 3 b), Šu-salla, the easterner, was given with 2 fattened bulls and 20 fattened ram/goats on behalf of (mu—še3) the ambassadors of the rulers of Mardaman(ium), Ḫabura (near Ninua), Gigibini(um) and duḫ-duḫ-li(um,). On Š 48 viii 2* in Tummal, 5 fattened rams were issued to the kitchen in his name (mu—še3), as well as 5 fattened ram/goats to the court of Šilḫaḫa, man of Šazibi, and 10 to the house of Turam-Šulgi, daughter of Šulgi, and wife of Šu-Dabani, man of ba-šim-e (ZA 72, 237-265). On 48 viii 12 in Nippur, via Lugal-ka-gina, the envoy, 4 fattened rams/goats were issued to the kitchen, for (mu–) šu-sal-la, the easterner (ša12-ti-um), the man of *ia3-da-u2ki* and the ambassador of Ḫašip-atal (man of Marḫaši), and on the next day, 2 fattened rams for the first time and 1 fattened bull with 10 fattened rams/goat for the second time were issued to the kitchen for the “easterner” and also for the man of šu-mi-um, the new comer.

 

On 46 ix 4 (JCS 31, 35 BMC 2), the 6 Akkadian generals of the Sumerian dynasty, EN(Bel)-ili, Šu-salla, Šuruš-kin, ti-ša-an*-da-ḫi*[4] and Šulgi-ili, without Kimani, but with Nur-ili who once guided the man of Šišil, met with some foreign ambassadors: the man of Ḫarši, man of Šišil, (5 rams) the man of Marḫaši (Ḫašip-atal?), the man of Gumaraši, man of Yabrat, the man of Barbanazu, the man of ur2-ša-anki, the man of ḫa-bu-raki, man of a-ri2-bi?-um(Urbilum?) and man of Ki-zi?-... . Each man was presented 1 fattened bull and 5 fattened rams, but Naplanum, the Amorite who was apparently in the service of the Sumerian dynasty, was presented 1 fattened bulls and 400 ram/goats (for his Amorite army?). Nur-ili appeared as the lu2 kas4 messenger on AS 1 viii 3 (AUCT 2, 179, and En-ili and Nur-ili, two of those six Akkadians, were once listed as captains (AS 4 xii 7; Princeton 1, 45). En-ili and Šuruš-kin once together sent 5 ram/goats to Enlil and Ninlil each on AS 2 ix 21 (SAT 2, 724). His inheritance (e2-du6-la) and the property of his son, numerous livestock, were taken over by Abba-saga, the chief of royal finance (AS 7 iii; BPOA 6, 143). In ŠS 9 viii and IS 3, En-ili’s son Nabi-Enlil was a general of the fortress of Anu/Uruk (seal in MVN 3, 294 and NATN 612 in Nippur). On Š 48 ix 6 (Nik 2, 474), nearly the same day two years later, Lu-Nanna, Šu-salla, EN(Bel)-ili, Tišandaḫi, Šulgi-ili and Nur-ili, as well as ki-ma-<ni*> (see §1.2.2) and AN-gu-la, were given one fattened bull each. On Š 46 i 24 (AfO 24, pl. 15 S 213), Tišandaḫi sent a lamb to the king, together with Apilaša, the powerful general of Šulgi in the literature letters,[5] who sent 31 oxen as tribute, and with Ilsu-rabi, Ḫun-ḫaba’ur and Lu-Nanna. In MVN 15, 142: 15'-45' ([Š 44-48]), 10 goats are issued by ARADmu to *˹ti˺-ša*-[an*]-da-*ḫi and ...-ba, the ruler of ši-ik-ri-šum, after whom there are 4 classes of the Akkadian and Hurrian messengers (kas4): Tahum-atal, Šu-šanum and Zumma, granted 5, 4 and 4 goats each, belong to the second class of the messengers, and Kimani, the colleague of Tišandaḫi on 48 ix 6, with 3 goats, was the third class; after him there were seven messengers each with 2 goats, and 8 with 1 goat each. On Š 47 x 25 (CST 193), Tišandaḫi (or Tiša-(d)Daḫi ?), Zariq, the man of Ashur, Šu-Šulgi and the rulers of Šimanum (for Simanum?), ate mutton together. Later on AS 5 iv 8 (MVN 18, 24), lamb tributes were sent to Amar-Sin by Tišandaḫi (1 lamb), together with Igiḫalum (10 sheep), nir-i3-da-ĝal2 (1 fattened lamb), u18-ba-a of Adamdun (1 lamb), Ilsu-rabi (1 lamb) and Zariq of Assur (30 sheep), which shows that Tišandaḫi was possibly equal to the other five generals or governors.

 

There are several men with the Akkadian name of Šulgi-ili. They include Šulgi-ili, fattener (kurušda; PDT 2, 1215), or knight (Princeton 1, 37; dšul-gi-i3-li2 ra2-gaba), who was the animal manager in the institution of Šulgi-simti, the queen of Šulgi, from Š 47 iv 30 (OIP 115, 116) to Š 48 xi 19 (SET 53), but he is not our concern. A Šulgi-ili was a general in Š 45 viii - 47 ix (RT 37, 130 mi. 7; OIP 115, 113), and third was captain from Š 48 x 2 to AS 6 ix 28 (OIP 115, 353; OIP 121, 103). If the Šulgi-ili here together with the man of Marḫaši and Šišil was not the general, he should have been an important Amorite, who was active from Š 46 x 15 to AS 8 (SAT 2, 551; Nisaba 11, 21) and became the gala lament singer in AS 2 ix 24 (OrSP 47-49, 21).

 

§2.2.2. At the two New Year’s Festivals of AS 4 i and vii, Kimani and the ambassador of Marḫaši, Naplanum and Amorites, three men of Mari and other foreigners came before the throne of Šulgi.

 

In Ur, there were two Akiti festivals of New Years: the first at the beginning of the year when the Month of Harvest (iti še-sag11-ku5) began in Ur, is called “New Year of Harvest,” and the second on the first day of the seventh month, the Akiti Month in Ur. This is “the New Year of Sowing” (a2-ki-ti šu-numun) or Middle Year. In the text of the Akiti~še-sag11-ku5 on AS 4 i 6, Amur-ili, ambassador of Libanu-ugšabaš, the governor of Marḫaši, received one bull and five rams as the New Year’s gift, and after him, Kumani took only one goat. This Kumani also occurred in the New Year of Sowing or the Middle Year of AS 4 vii 1 in a parallel text, where he takes one goat after the Amorites. In the parallel text, we find Amur-Šulgi, Šulgi-palil and Aqbani who became the gala eunuch singer (AS 2 viii 6; BCT 1, 77), three immigrants from Mari, two of whom named after Šulgi, their lord. Some new allied foreign ambassadors, and Naplanum, the powerful Amorite leader, were also honored guests at both festivals. In the group of Amorite, there were Yanbuli or Dannum, his brother, and his son Abiš-kin, as well as the two Amorite generals whose names were after the king: Šulgi-abi and Ḫun-Šulgi. Many Amorite officers were named after Šulgi, or later after Amar-Suen or Šu-Suen. The throne of the dead Šulgi was at the center of the both New Year festivals (in the first or last position in the lists). Naplanum was the most important ally of the Ur dynasty from Š 43 ii 3 (Nik 2, 487), when he was appointed as captain (na-ap-la-num2! nu-banda3). In the gift list for the second (Sowing) New Year, we also have twelve princesses of Ur with two wet-nurses. Naplanum, who is listed after the princesses in the text, was the leading guest in the both texts, and received the most livestock gifts, two fattened bulls, seven fattened and five ram/goats, with Abi-iškin, his son, and Dannum and Yanbuli, his brothers, and Šulgi-abi and Ḫun-Šulgi, the Amorites fellows, receiving two rams each. The twelve princesses of Ur and the ambassadors each took one fattened bull and five rams.

 

A Synopsis of the Amorite Group, the Marḫaši Man and other Foreign Diplomats in the Festivals of New Year (a2-ki-ti) and of Middle Year of AS 4 (i and vii)
AS 4 i 6 (TCL 2, 5508; Akiti~ še-sag11-ku5) AS 4 vii 1* (CTMMA 1, 17; Akiti~ šu-numun)
two rams/goats for the throne of Šulgi: Watarum as royal deputy, from the tribute for the Akiti of Harvest (the New Year in iti še-sag11-ku5, month i, in Ur). two ram/goat for the throne of Šulgi, ša3-ta-ku3-zu as royal deputy, from the tributes for the Akiti of Sowing (the Middle Year, in iti Akiti, month vii in Ur)
Naplanum: two fattened bulls, seven fattened rams and five rams/goats, Naplanum: two fattened bulls, seven fattened rams and five rams/goats,
ia3-an-bu-li, his brother: two rams/goats, dan-num2, his brother: two rams/goats,
Abiš-ki-in, his son: two rams/goats, Abiš-ki-in*(il?, his son): two rams/goats,
the wife of ia3-an-bi2-i3-lum: two rams/goats, no
Napšanum, the ambassador of ia3-a-mu-tum: one ram, no
Šulgi-abi: two rams/goats, Šulgi-abi: two rams/goats,
and Ḫun-Šulgi: one ram; above are Amorites above are Amorites; Ḫun-Šulgi (not in the Amorites): one ram
Amur-ili, ambassador of Libanu-ugšabaš, the governor of Marḫaši: one fattened bull and five fattened rams, (after Muluš,) Wedum, ambassador of Nadu-beli, governor of Magan: one fattened bull, five rams;
Kimani: one goat, (after Mar-tu) Išar-libur: one goat, Kimani one ram,
si-i3-li2 (=EN-ili?): one goat si-i3*-li2*: one goat,
ku-zu-zu, ambassador of Barbarage: two rams/goats, (after Wedum) Maza, the one of ia3-še-bu, ruler of Dariba: five ram/goats,
Adda-buni, ambassador of še-eb-ba: one* goat, dun*?-ga2*-a*-at*? (for ši-ba-ra-aq?), ruler of Zidaḫri: one fattened bull, five rams (Zidaḫri was in Sumer in AS 7 viii 1 – 8 ix 14).
še-bi, ambassador of Raši: one goat (Raši, man of zi-da-num2 with Puzur-Mama of Mari, on AS 2 v 16, LAOS 1, 28), puzur4*-ma-ma*, ruler of Mari: one fattened bull, five rams/goats (Puzur-Mama with men of Ebla and Uršu was in AS 2 iii 13: MVN 15, 360 iv 14, BPOA 7, 2916 v 20, JCS 7, 104, until viii: JCS 7, 105); Šu-Mama, man of Mari in AS 2 xi 15 (Torino 1, 232), may be šu-diš-ha-ra, lu2 ma-ri2ki (AS 6 iv 1; CST 468).
*ba! (not ma)-da-ti-na, one goat, (after Si-ili) ba-da-ti-na, one goat,
bu-ul-ba-at*: one goat, (after Si-ili) bu-ul-ba-at: one goat,
Šimaškeans: three rams/goats, Zinugi, man of Ḫibilati, via bi2-li2-la, envoy,
dan-ha-la-at: one goat, (after Si-ili) dan-ḫa-la-at*! (not ŠAR2×30): one goat,
Ḫu-un-ki-ib-ri: one goat, Hu-un-ze2-ri, one goat Ḫu-un-ki-ib-ri: one ram, Ḫu-un-Šulgi: one ram, Šulgi-ili, one goat,
bi2-it-tu: one goat, Amur-Šulgi: three rams/goats (man of Mari in ŠS 4 ix 24 [RA 98, 4 4]; On Š 47 x 16 [CST 190], a*-mi*-ir*-d*šul-gi* and Šulgi-palil, two men of Mari, and their houses are listed, and on AS 8 vii 2 [PDT 1, 548], Amur-Šulgi, Aqbani, Šulgi-abi and Šulgi-ili, four men of Mari, are listed, via Naram-Adad)
ze2-x-še: one goat, Šulgi-palil: two rams (on Š 47/viii/28, he and Amir![=Amur]-Šulgi, two men of Mari, went to Aḫuti to take field [MVN 15, 189] and also on AS [? x] 15 [PDT 2, 959]); on Š 47 viii 21 (CT 32, pl. 23), the two and aq*-ba-ni, the three Marians, are with Tadin-Ištar, their mistress.)
ba-ša-an-ti-ba-at*: one goat, (after Aqbani) Bašan-tibat: one ram,
mu-lu-uš: one goat, Muluš: one ram (the Akkadian generals),
aq-ba-ni, man of Mari: two rams/goats, (who was in Ur on AS 1 ii 2 [AUCT 1, 244], became the gala eunuch on AS 2 viii 6 [BCT 1, 77]) (aq-ba*-ni* also occurs in MVN 4 , 71) (after Šulgi-palil) aq-ba-ni*: two rams/goats (on Š 48 ix 9 [OrSP 18, pl. 5 17: 22-32], Amir-Šulgi, d*šul-[gi*-pa*-li2*-il*], Aqbani and Ili-ištiqal, four Marians, in Sumer.)
ur-e2-an-na (nu-banda3 on AS 4 xii 23, 25, and on AS 5 v 19 [AUCT 1, 24; RA 76, 14], also sipa Umma): ten rams/goats, ze2-e-na-a, diviner: twenty rams/goats, and lu2-dšul-gi, son of king: five rams; Ur-Baba, cook* (line 97: muḫaldim*, not maškim): one fattened bull, ten rams
da-da, gala singer: two fattened bulls, twenty fattened rams (one tribute norm = one bull : ten sheep); the high priest of Inanna: one fattened bull, five fattened rams, five rams (ten).
via Lugal-kagina, envoy, ARADmu as royal deputy via Lugal-kagina, envoy, ARADmu as deputy,
are withdrawn from ab-ba-sa6-ga are withdrawn from ab-ba-sa6-ga

 

§2.2.3. On AS 6 x 10 (SET 63), the five men of the first rank, issued with one fattened bull and ten rams, were Lu-Nanna, the u3-kul, Ur-Eanna, arad3-kal-la, ri-im-ga-ga and mu-ur2-tin-gaba, who was an Elamite on Š 45 iii 4 (TRU 256) and raised to nu-banda3 captain from AS 5 ix 29 (Nik 2, 476), once under Dukra on [AS 5?] v 27, in the festival of the men of Marḫaši (MVN 13, 695), and then under Šarrum-bani from AS 9 iii 15 (Nisaba 8, 52) to SS 3 (CT 32, 36). Murtingaba (one lamb) was also together with Ur-Eanna (five gazelles) on AS 5 i 23 (JCS 23, 113 23). After Murtingaba, Naplanum was issued, by ARADmu, with one fattened bull and three fattened rams and one ram, and Yabrat with one bull and five rams. After the higher rank men, na-na-dug-še and še-da-ga-gi each was presented with two fattened rams. For the three men from Mari, Amur-Šulgi took two rams, Šulgi-palil and aq*-ba-ni each took one ram, and for the three Amorites all whose names include the name of the divine Šulgi, Šulgi-abi took two, Šulgi-ili and Ḫun-Šulgi each took one.

 

§2.3. ama-ĝiri3še-er and Ḫašip-atal, man of Marḫaši (Š 46 ix–48)
On Š 46 ix *18 (BIN 3, 12), ama-ĝiri3(or anše)še-er (ama-ĝiri3ši-ir in MVN 13, 529), but mostly written as ama-giri3er, “Mother of Pride,” a Sumerian noble lady, who might be the wife of Ḫašip-atal, was issued with two fattened rams, and then five fattened rams were sent to the kitchen for Ḫašip-atal, titled as “the man of Marḫaši,” and for ama-ĝiri3er. On Šulgi 48 xii 12 (UDT 116), four fattened rams was presented to the ki–a-naĝ libation place of the dead Šulgi, one fattened ram was issued to the e2-uz-ga dining hall for the living queen (nin), who was either Geme-Ninlil or Šulgi-simti, and one goat was given to ama-ĝiri3[er*], who came with the messengers and was possibly a princess married to the ruler of Marḫaši. On Š 48 x 18, from ba-ba-tal, (under?) ama-ĝiri3še-er, Nasa took two norms (one norm = one bull with 10 sheep/goats) of tribute, i.e., two fattened bulls, eleven fattened rams with nine rams (twenty sheep) and one fattened goat (Hermitage 3, 190).

 

On the AS 1 v 29 (MVN 15, 194), ama-ĝiri3 came back to Sumer, with the ambassadors of both ar-wi*-lu*-ug-bi, ruler of Marḫaši, and his son, who might be the son born by her, or her grandson.

 

On AS 1 ix 21 (MVN 13, 529), a gift of one bull and five rams/goats were granted to each dwelling of EN-ili, šu-sal*-la*, Šuruš-kin, dšul-<gi*>-i3-li2, Nur-ili, …. the man of ši-ig-ša-biki, and gun4-na and u2*-du-ru: the men of šu-da-eki, du-ug-ra, man of Kakmi, as well as five fattened rams to Bibra, the Šimaškean, and one fattened goat for ama-ĝiri3ši*-ir. Meanwhile, twelve fattened rams/goats were sent three times to the kitchen for the messengers with them.

 

§2.4. Ḫašip-atal, general, and his daughter-in-law Nin-ḫedu in Š 47
On Š 47 iv (Š46' xii'; TCL 2, 5488, a text of the weapon keeper), one bronze musical instrument was handed in by Ḫašip-atal general, via Šu-Enlil, guard of Ea-ili (general of Umma), while one Elamite bow was delivered from Lu-Nanna, general of Nagsu, to Puzrish-Dagan. This means that Ḫašip-atal, a chieftain with a Hurrian name, now became a general of the Ur Dynasty. On Š 47 xii 4 (TRU 110) Nasa took five fattened oxen, 28 fattened rams, two goats, one kid, three norms (one norm =one bull with ten of flock) of tribute, from ḫa-ši-pa2-tal and three fattened bulls, thirty rams (three norms) from nin-ḫe2-du7, daughter-in-law of Ḫašip-atal. nin-ḫe2-du7 was the sixth of the twelve princesses on AS 4 vii 1* (CTMMA 1, 17), on the Akiti days when the royal gifts were given to the dead Šulgi and to Naplanum, his son and brother, as well as to the Amorites, the Marians, and others.

 

The irrigation of the field of nin-ḫe2-du7 in Umma was mentioned on AS 3, with a royal envoy (BPOA 1, 852). However, another princess with the same name is called the wife of a sukkal-maḫ (“chief minister,” ASJ 9, 126 57, date damaged), who was possibly the wife of the father of ARADmu, during Š 35 xi and 36 i in the archive of queen Šulgi-simti (CST 43; Hirose 13). This possibility is based on the fact that the wife of the sukkal-maḫ ARADmu was a šuba3-du3-a in AS 9 x (ITT 5, 6997), and a Baba-u’e’a in ŠS 3 <no month> 3, 9, 10-11, 13, 20, 23, 25 (TCTI 1, 1028, 1027; ITT 2, 4006, 3178, 3168, 3181, 4000; MVN 2, 133) and in IS 1 (TCTI 2, 2700).

 

Texts on Ḫašip-atal, his ambassadors, Šu-salla and others, ama-ĝiri3še-er and nin-ḫe2-du7, with Lugal-kagina, envoy (Šulgi 43 iii – 48 xii)
text distributing Marḫaši receivers Other receivers
Š43 iii 22
(OIP 115, 149)
seven bulls and seven cows tribute from Ḫašip-atal  
Š 46 viii 6
(RA 8, 183 1)
two fattened bulls, nineteen fattened ram/goats to the kitchen, Šulgi-kalama-metebi as royal deputy (maškim) for (mu) <šu*>-sal-la (ša12-ti-um), and šu-ru-uš-ki-in, (and) the ambas- sadors of man of mar-ḫa-šiki and of man of ši-ši-ilki soldiers: sixty-six sheep/goats for first time, 1 ox and 11 sheep/goats for second; withdrawn from lu2-dingir-ra II[6]
Š 46 ix 4
(JCS 31, 35 BMC 2)
five fattened rams, each: ... ARADmu as royal deputy, are withdrawn from the anonymous (Nasa) for the man of Ḫarši, man of Šišil, (only five rams) for the man of Marḫaši (Ḫašip- atal?), the man of Guma-raši, man of Yabrat, the man of Barbanazu, man of ur2-ša-anki, man of ḫa-bu-raki, man of a-ri2-bi?-umki … man of ki- zi?-[...], one bull, 400 rams/goats, for Naplanum, Amorite (mar*-tu) for EN-i3-li2 (general), for šu-sal-la (general?), for Šuruš-kin, for Ti-ša-an-da-ḫi*, for Šulgi-ili, for Nur-ili (with man of Šišil in 48 vi 26) (all these nobles appeared with the foreign ambassadors in Š 48 ix 6 in §1.2.1)
Š 46 ix 18* (not 12)
(BIN 3, 12)
ARADmu as deputy, in Ur, are withdrawn from Nalu two fattened rams for ama-ĝiri3še-er (šer in EME-SAL for ĝiri3/merx?) five fattened rams to the kitchen for Ḫašip-atal, man of Marḫaši and ama-ĝiri3še-er (“mother of might”)
(Š 46' xi'=) Š 47 iv
(TCL 2, 5488)
one bronze za3-mi-ri2-tum musical instrument: the tribute Dayyānu-mišar received handed over by Ḫašip-atal, šakkana general, via Šu-Enlil, guard of Ea-ili (general of Umma) one Elam bow from Lu-Nanna, general of nag-su, in Puzrish-Dagan
Š 47 vi 23
(Hermitage 3, 162)
forty-two asses, the booty against the land of Amorites from Ḫašip-atal, via Uššabras, lu2-x, the tributes are taken.
Š47 xii 4
(TRU 110)
five fattened oxen, twenty-eight fattened rams, two goats, one kid, Nasa took tributes in Nippur (tribute) from Ḫašip-atal, three fattened bulls, thirty rams (from) nin-ḫe2-du7, the daughter-in-law of Ḫašip-atal.
Š48 vi 26
(OrSP 18, pl. 4 14)
via Lugal-kagina, envoy, withdrawn from lu2-dingir-ra in Nippur one udu for <e2-uz-ga>, the tribute of Ḫašip-atal, Ayakalla (cook) as royal deputy one bull, ten rams/goats, to kitchen, for Nur-ili, man of ši-ši-il-laki and the messengers
Š48 viii 13
(PDT 1, 419)
via Lugal-kagina, envoy, ARADmu as royal deputy, in Nippur, withdrawn from lu2-dingir-ra II, two fattened rams for the first time, one fattened bull, four fattened rams, six fattened goat for the second time, to kitchen for Šu-salla, “easterner” the ruler of Šumium, the ruler of Yadau and the ambassador of Ḫašip-atal.
Š 48 xi 25
(Ontario 1, 38)
three fattened rams, tribute of Ḫašip-atal and one ewe, tribute of Amar- Damu to the e2-uz-ga dining hall, Ur-Baba (cook) as deputy, withdrawn from Nasa AS 1 iii (AnOr 1, 10) five bulls, the bulls delivered from Ḫašip-atal via Lugal-kagina, from Nasa, Enlila took
Š 48 xii 12
(UDT 116)
four fattened ewes were presented to the ki–a-naĝ libation place of the dead Šulgi, ARADmu as deputy, withdrawn from Ahuni. 1 fattened ram was issued to the e2-uz-ga dining hall for the living nin (queen, who was either Geme-Ninlil or Šulgi-simti). 10 fattened rams/goat to the kitchen for the messengers in Nippur, and one goat was given to ama-ĝiri3[er*].

 

§2.5. Ḫašip-atal, General of Arrapḫum from AS 5 v 25 and his Son Puzur-Šulgi, from 8/v (in ŠS 3)
From AS 5 v 25 on, Ḫašip-atal worked as the general (ugula) of the troops in Arrapḫum, and his son Puzur-Šulgi took his position during the reign of Šu-Suen.

 

Ḫašip-atal, general of Arraphum (AS 5 v – [IS 1 xi]), and his successor Puzur-Šulgi (AS 8 v – ŠS 3)
AS 5 v 25 (PDT 1, 166): twenty oxen, 300 rams/goats, from the troops of ar-ra-ap-ḫu-umki, one bull, ten rams, from Zuzu, captain; and from mu6-ḫa-a, captain: the ugula general is ḫa-ši*!(ar?)-pa2-tal, Abba-saga took them AS 8 v 8 (AUCT 3, 484): twenty bulls from the troops of Arrapḫum, its ugula general is Puzur-Šulgi, son of Ḫašip-atal ŠS 3 (CT 32, pl. 36 BM 103403): one lamb in the receipt of Puzur-Šulgi, son of Ḫašip-atal, withdrawn from Urmes. IS 1 xi 21 (JCS 52, 102 52) one gazelle kid, the tribute to the king, from Ḫašip-atal, in-ta-e3-a took

 

§3. Arwilugbi, governor of Marḫaši, and ambassadors of him and his son in Amar-Suen 1 v, vi, viii
On AS 1 v 28-29, vi 8, AS 1 vi 21 and AS 1 viii 17, the unnamed ambassador of Arwilugbi, a new ruler (man) of Marḫaši, and that of the son of Arwilugbi stayed in Sumer, accompanied by Lugal-kagina, the Ur sukkal envoy. This son might be his successor named Liban(u)-ugšabaš, who appears as the prince or governor (ensi2) of Marḫaši later. On AS 1 vi 21, ama-ĝiri3er appears together with the two ambassadors, and on AS 1 xii* 12*, she was issued one fattened ram alone and the two ambassadors possibly went back to Marḫaši. On AS 1 xii* 12*, a ba-ri-a-šum was titled as the man of marar-ḫa-šiki when he came from Marḫaši.

 

Note that in the two texts of En-dingir-mu in Tummal (ZA 80, 28 [AS 5 viii 3]; MVN 15, 199 [5 viii 12]) and one text of Enlila (OrSP 47-49, 24 = TRU 318 [AS 3 vi 3]), Marḫaši was written as marar-ḫa-šiki. The latter one records a Bariašum as the man came back from Marḫaši.

 

)
The unnamed ambassadors of Arwilugbi, man of Marḫaši, and of his unnamed son in AS 1 v-vi, viii and ama-ĝiri3er
AS 1 v 28
(JCS 57, 28 7)
via Lugal-kagina, lugal-ma2-gur-re envoy as deputy, withdrawn from Lu-dingira II (in charge of the wild animals) one fattened ram for the ambassador of ar-wi*-lu-ug*-bi, man of Marḫaši, one fattened rams for the am- bassador of the son of ar-wi*-lu*-ug*- bi, man of Marḫaši, to the their farm (e2-duru5)
AS 1 v 29
(MVN 15, 194
lugal-ma2-gur envoy as royal deputy, withdrawn from Lu-dingira II one fattened ram for the ambassador of ar-*wi- *lu-*ug-bi and one fattened ram for ambassador of the son of ar-wi*-lu*-ug*-bi, one fattened ram ama-ĝiri3er (not ug)
AS 1 vi 8 (2-3, 7- 11, ... 27-[*28/9])
(RSO 83, 344 9)
via Lugal-kagina, lugal-ma2-gur-re as royal deputy, withdrawn from Ahuni one fattened ram each for the ambassador of the son of ar-wi-lu-ug-*bi, the ambassador of ar-wi-lu-u[g]-bi*, and the ambassador of Ḫulibar, ruler of Duḫduḫli, to their farm (e2-duru5-ne-ne–še3) two fattened rams for Inanna, to Uruk, via Lugal-imaḫ, cupbearer
AS 1 vi 8
(PDT 1, 401)
withdrawn from Enlila in Ur nine* bulls for the men of Marḫaši on 8th, dragged to the kitchen (šu-[gid2 e2*-muḫaldim*]) 18-19) 1 gu4 *[1]2! (read 4!) ab2, ba-uš2, ur-niĝarĝar šu ba-ti (total) 60 + 32 = 92*
AS 1 vi 13
(MVN 18, 19)
from Aḫuni and Lu-dingira, both from Abba-saga, Enlila took twenty oxen for Ur, twenty-eight bulls for the men of Marḫaši, from Aḫuni forty bulls for Ur, twenty-six bulls for the men of Marḫaši, from Lu-dingira
AS 1 vi 21
(ASJ 19, 204 13
in Uruk, via Lugal-kagina, messenger, ARADmu as royal deputy, withdrawn from Aḫuni one fattened ram each for the ambassador of Arwilugbi, the ambassador of the son of Arwilugbi, and the ambassador of Ḫulibar, ruler of Duḫduḫli one fattened he-goat for ama-ĝiri3*er (not ug) to their farm (e2-duru5-ne-ne–še3)
AS 1 vi 26
(SAT 2, 683)
withdrawn from Aḫuni, ARADmu as royal deputy one fattened ram for ama-ĝiri3er (for ne2),
AS 1 vi
(BPOA 1, 309)
two liters of beer and two of bread, via ARADḫula, general in Girsu forty-four Elamites, each, received, when the Elamites went from Ur to Marḫaši two knights of Ur, each six liters of beer, six of bread
AS 1 viii 17
(MVN 1, 124)
ARADmu as royal deputy, withdrawn from En-dingirmu in Tummal one fattened ram each for the ambassador of ar-bi(for wi)-*lu-*ug-bi and the ambassador of the son of ar-bi-*lu-*ug-bi one ram for mar-ḫu-ni, man of Ḫarši
AS1 viii 17
(CST 235)
ARADmu as deputy, withdrawn from Aḫuni two calves crossbred with bison, to the place (ki!) of the son of ar-*wi-*lu-<ug-bi>, man of Marḫaši <to> Marḫaši, via <...>, (photo P107749)
AS 1 xii * 12*
(Ontario 2, 205)
ARADmu as deputy in Nippur, withdrawn from Lu-dingira two fattened bulls, five fattened rams for engar-du10 when he presents the bridal price to the house of his father-in-law one fattened ram for ki-wi, the man of Duḫduḫli, one fattened rams goat for Raši, the man of Zidanum, one fattened ram for ama-ĝiri3 (KIŠ)er* sent to their village via pu-u2
AS 3 vi 3*
(OrSP 47-49, 24
= TRU 318)
withdrawn from Enlila two bulls for ba-ri-a-šum the man who came back from Marḫaši (lu2 marar-ha- šiki-ta i3-im-gen-na-a) (2 copies: OrSP 47-49, 24 = TRU 318)

 

§4. Amur-ili, the first ambassador of Libanu-ugšabaš, governor of Marḫaši: AS 3 xii – 4 v 15 for a half year
Klein 1990 presented seven texts about Amur-ili, the first ambassador of Libanu-ugšabaš, in Sumer. In addition, we now have 12 texts about the visit of Amur-ili on AS 3 xii 28, AS 4 i 6 (Klein mistook this for i/3), 14, 23, 27, ii 25, [iii] 7, iii 22, v 6, 9, 15. This Libanu-ugšabaš, ruler of Marḫaši, might be the unnamed son of Arwilugbi who apparently had a close relationship with the Ur court since he was titled with the governor (ensi2) of Marḫaši. Amur-ili was a man with an Akkadian name who should have learned the language of Iran. In Sumer, Amur-ili was accompanied in turn by the three envoys of Ur: Šu-Dada in AS 3 xii 28, Lugal-kagina in four days of AS 4 i-ii, and Lu-Damu in six days of months iii and v. On AS 4 iii 7, 16, 22, he appears together with Guraya, man of Uršu, and ’a3-um, man of Mari and on v 6 and 9, these three eastern diplomats were joined by two other men from Syria, Dagan-abu, ambassador of ia-ši-li-im, governor of Tutula, and Ibati, ambassador of Ibdati, man of gu5-ub-la (Byblos).

 

Texts Recording Amur-ili in Sumer (AS 3 xii 28 – 4 v 15)
AS 3 xii 28
(CST 286
via Šu-Dada, envoy, nam-ha-ni, envoy, as royal deputy, withdrawn from Šulgi-ayamu one fattened ram, for Amur- ili(dingir), ambassador who came from Marḫaši
AS 4 i 6
(TCL 2, 5508)
ARADmu as royal deputy, withdrawn from Abba-saga 1 fattened bull and five fattened rams for Amur-ili, ambassador of li-ba-nu-ug-ša-ba-aš, ensi2 mar-ḫa-šiki for Kimani, Si-ili, Kuzuzu, ambassadors of Barbarage, Addabuni of Šebba, Šebi of Raši, Madtina, Bulbad and Šimaškeans; see §1.2
AS 4 i 14
(MVN 3, 228)
Lugal-kagina, envoy, as royal deputy, withdrawn from Nalu (sheep fattener in Nippur) one fattened ram, for Amur-ili, ambassador of Libanu-ugšabaš, governor of Marḫaši one fattened ram for the foreign minister, one for Ilallum, one for Bu’udu, one for lugal-ku3- zu when lugal-ur3-ra-ni went out, one for Naplanum, Amorite
AS 4 i 23
(OIP 121, 20)
via Lugal-ka-gina, envoy, ARADmu as royal deputy in Uruk, withdrawn from Aḫu-Wer one fattened goat for Amur-ili, ambassador of Libanu-ugšabaš, governor of Marḫaši, one fattened rams goat for the throne room of Inanna of Uruk, via Ilum-bani, five fattened goats for Babati, (treasurer)
AS 4 i 27
(SAT 2, 806)
via Lugal-kagina, envoy, ARADmu as royal deputy in Uruk, withdrawn from Aḫu-Wer one fattened ram for Amur-ili, ambassador of Libanu-ugšabaš, governor of Marḫaši
AS 4 ii 25
(AUCT 2, 278)
via Lugal-kagina, envoy, as royal deputy, withdrawn from Abba-saga one bull, ten rams/goats for Amur-ili, ambassador of Libanu-ugšabaš, governor of Marḫaši from the tribute of the army of Tutub
[*AS 4] iii 7
(MVN 3, 384)
via Lu-Damu; ARADmu as royal deputy; withdrawn from Šulgi-ayamu one fattened ram, for Amur-ili, ambassador of Libanu-ugšabaš, governor of Marḫaši one fattened ram for Guraya, man of Uršu, one fattened ram for ’a3-um, man of Mari, via Huziri, envoy
AS 4 iii 16
(CDLJ 2012:1 §4.35)
ARADmu as royal deputy, withdrawn from Šulgi-aya-mu one fattened ram for Amur-ili, ambassador of Libanu-ugšabaš, governor of Marḫaši, via Lu-Damu one fattened rams goat for Guraya, man of Uršu, 1 fattened rams ram for ’a3-um, man of Mari; via Bilila, envoy
AS 4 iii 22
(TLB 3, 25)
via Huziri, envoy, ARADmu as royal deputy, withdrawn from Šulgi-ayamu one fattened ram for Amur-ili, ambassador of Libanu-ugšabaš, governor of Marḫaši, via Lu-Damu one fattened ram for Guraya, man of Ur-[šu], one for ’a3-um, man of Mari
AS 4 v 6
(MVN 18, 99)
via Lu-Damu, envoy, ARADmu as royal deputy, are withdrawn from Šulgi-ayamu one fattened goat for Amur-ili, ambassador of li-ba*-an-ug-ša-ba*-aš, governor of Marḫaši, one for Guraya, man of Uršu, one for ’a3-um, man of Mari; via Ḫuziri, envoy one Dagan-abu, ambassador of Yaši-ilum, governor of Tutula, 1 for Ibati, ambassador of Ibdati, man of gu5-ub-la (Byblos), via Bušam envoy
AS 4 v 9
(MVN 5, 111)
ARADmu as royal deputy, withdrawn from Šulgi-ayamu one fattened ram, for Amur-ili, ambassador of Libanu-ugšabaš, governor of Marḫaši, one for Guraya, man of ur*-šu*, one for ’a3*-um*, man of Mari; via Ḫuziri, envoy one for Dagan-abu, ambassador of Yaši-ilum, governor of Tutula, 1 for Ibati, ambassador of Ibdati, man of gu5-ub-la (Byblos), via Bušam, envoy
AS 4 v 15
(BCT 1, 90)
via Lu-Damu, envoy, ARADmu as royal deputy, withdrawn from Šulgi-ayamu one fattened ram for Amur-ili, ambassador of Libanu, ugšabaš, governor of Marḫaši,

 

§5. Liban-ašgubi, the second ambassador of Libanuugšabaš, in AS 5 i, v 9, vii-ix, xi, AS 6 ii, iv, vii-viii 5, for two years
Klein 1990 presented 16 texts recording Liban-ašgubi, the second ambassador of Libanu-ugšabaš, ruler of Marḫaši. Today, the texts concerning li-ba-an-aš-gu-bi, the second ambassador of Li-ba-nu-ug-ša-ba-aš in CDLI and BDTNS now number 23. Liban-ašgubi can be identified as being from Marḫaši from his Iranian name; he would have known the Sumerian and Akkadian languages. He replaced Amur-ili, who bears an Akkadian name, as the ambassador of Libanu-ugšabaš from AS 5 i. He appears in the court of Ur on AS 5 v 9, vii 5, viii 3, 11-12*, 24, ix 1, xi 13, AS 6 ii 16-[17], 24, iv 1, 5-6, 9, 26, vii 1, viii 2-3, 5. During Amar-Suen 5, the Sumerian envoys who accompanied Liban-ašgubi were Ur-Šarru-gen, 4 times during AS 5, and ḫa-ni (=nam-ḫa-ni?), Lu-Damu, Lu-Enki and nam-ḫa-ni once. During Amar-Suen 6 ii 16 – iv 9, the accompanying envoy was Šu-Šulgi, and then from 6 iv 26 to viii 5, the accompanying envoy was Lu-Damu again, who had accompanied Amur-ili, the first ambassador of Libanu-ugšabaš, in Amar-Suen 4 iii and v, and also Liban-ašgubi on AS 5 viii 3.

 

Liban-ašgubi appears together with Bušam, man of Šimanum on AS 5 vii 5, viii 3 and viii* 12 in Tummal. On the latter day, ad-da-gi-na[7], ensi2 ḫa-ar-šiki, joined the two. On 5 viii 24, he is listed together with me*-ša*-nu-nu, the Šimaškean. On AS 6 ii 16, he is with dan-na-li, ambassador of Ḫulibar, ruler of duḫ-duḫ-<li>, via Lalamu, and zu-bu-uš[8], ambassador of ia3-ab-ra-at of Šimaški.

 

On 6 [ii 17] and ii 24, the ambassador of Marḫaši was still together with Zubuš who was sent by Yabrat of Šimaški. On AS 6 iv 1, 5-6, 9, 23, 26, this ambassador met two diplomats of Syria: Ili-Dagan, man of Ebla, and Šu-Išḫara, man of Mari, and on the last day of his stay in Sumer (viii 5), Liban-ašgubi met Marḫuni, man of Ḫarši, and a-ha-ba/pa2-tal, man of Ḫipilati, in Tummal.

 

Liban-ašgubi, ambassador of Libanu-ugšabaš, governor of Marḫaši: AS 5 i – 6 viii/5
AS 5 i [?]
(Trouvaille 27)
ur-šar-ru-gen7 as royal deputy; withdrawn from Abba-saga one fattened bull, three fattened rams, seven rams, for li-ba-an*(not nu)-aš-gu-bi, ambassador of li-ba-nu-ug*-ša-ba-aš, governor of Marḫaši, two rams for Šulgi-abi, one ram for Ḫun-Šulgi (general of Umma), two fattened bulls, two fattened rams, ten lambs for Naplanum, Amorite
AS 5 v 9
(PDT 2, 1171)
ARADmu as royal deputy, withdrawn from Šulgi-ayamu one fattened ram, for Liban-ašgubi, ambassador of Libanu-ugšabaš, governor of Marḫaši two fattened rams/goats for Inanna to Uruk, via Nur-Sin, cupbearer, one fattened ram for Ḫubutiya (sukkal in PDT 2, 959) via Lalamu, envoy
AS 5 vii 5
(MVN 5, 113)
via ur-šar-ru-gen7, envoy, ARADmu as royal deputy, withdrawn from [Šulgi-aya-mu?] [one] fattened ram, for Liban-ašgubi, ambassador of li-ba-<nu>- ug-<ša>- ba-aš, governor of Marḫaši [one] fattened ram for Bušam, man of Šimanum, [one+ fattened ram] for Naplanum, Amorite
AS 5 viii 3
(ZA 80, 28
Private Col.
)
ARADmu as royal deputy; withdrawn in Tummal, from the place of En-dingirmu one goat for Liban-ašgubi, ambassador of Libanu- ugšabaš, governor of marar-ḫa-ši, via Lu-Damu, envoy; one fattened ram one lamb for Šeleputum, daughter of king, Utu-du as deputy. one for Bušam, man of Šimanum, via Bušam, envoy
AS 5 viii 11
(PDT 1, 126)
ur-šar-ru-gen7 <envoy> as royal deputy, withdrawn from Abba-saga one bull, ten rams, for li-ba-an*-aš-*gu5-bi, ambassador of Libanu-ugšabaš, governor of Marḫaši
AS 5 *viii 12
(MVN 15, 199)
ARADmu as royal deputy, withdrawn in Tummal, from En-dingirmu one fattened goat for li-ba*-an- aš-gu*-bi*, ambassador (lu2 kin-gi4-a) of li-ba*-nu-ug*-ša-ba*-aš, governor of marar-ḫa-šiki one fattened ram for bu3-ša-am, man of ši-ma-num2ki, one for ad-da-gi-na, ensi2 of ḫa-ar-šiki
AS 5 viii 24
(MVN 1, 142)
ARADmu as royal deputy, from the tribute of me*-ša*(not la2-ta)-nu-nu, Šimaškean (Mešinunu in OIP 121, 164: 8; Mešanunu in MVN 15, 216: 8), withdrawn from Abba-saga one bull, ten Šimaški rams/goats for Liban-ašgubi, ambassador of Libanu-ugšabaš, man (lu2) of Marḫaši forty rams for Ilallum, two for Ur-Suen, bow maker
AS 5 ix 1
(MVN 11, 154)
ARADmu as royal deputy, withdrawn from Abba-saga ten rams/goats for li-ba-an*(na)-ašgubi, ambassador of Libanu-ugšabaš, governor of Marḫaši one bull, five rams/goats, Me-Ištaran, “ša3*(not ki) mu-er10*-ra* (not udu)-ta
(AS 5 ix 24
(Nik 2, 484)
from the tribute of Išarra-maš, withdrawn from Abba-saga thirty rams/goats for the soldiers of the man of Marḫaši, general: Abuni, Ili-dan as royal deputy, two sheep for Puzur-uša, the lukur concubine of king, *Šu-Mama, envoy (sukkal) as deputy (as lu2 kin-gi4-a lugal from AS 1 [Nik 2, 203] to AS 7 x [AnOr 1, 110])
(AS 5 x
(BPOA 1, 1036)
from Ur-Lisi, (governor of Umma), receipt of Lugal-kagina twelve ban2 of good beer, thirty-three ban2 of common beer, fifteen ban2 of gu-flour, thirty ban2 of barley flour and two rams/goats, supplies for the men of Marḫaši (one low rank travel man is issued 1/2 ban2 of common beer, so that thirty-three ban2 is to be issued for about 66 men)
[AS 5 ...]
(ZA 95, 66)
ARADmu as royal deputy, withdrawn from [Šulgi-ayamu] one fattened ram for Liban-<aš>gubi, ambassador of Libanu-ugšabaš, governor of Marḫaši, via nam-ḫa-ni, envoy Dukra and Ilallum, generals, each took one bull and gen sheep to feed dogs, via two dog keepers
AS 5 xi 13
(Hermitage 3, 297)
ARADmu as royal deputy, withdrawn from Šulgi-ayamu one fattened ram for Liban-ašgubi, ambassador of Libanu-ugšabaš, the governor of Marḫaši, via Ur-Šarru-kin, envoy one fattened ram for Ḫubutiya (sukkal), via Lalamu, envoy (the two also on AS 5 i 19 [HUCA 29, 77 5] and on v 9 above)
AS 6 ii 16
(Ontario 1, 48)
ARADmu as royal deputy, in Nippur, withdrawn from Aḫu-Wer one fattened ram for Liban-ašgubi, ambassador of Libanu-ugšabaš, governor of Marḫaši, via Šu-Šulgi, envoy one fattened ram for zu-bu-uš ambassador of ia2-ab- ra-at of Šimaški, via Ur-Ḫaya, envoy; one for dan-na-li ambassador of Ḫulibar, ruler of duḫ-duḫ-<li> via Lalamu, envoy
AS [6* ii 17]
(MVN 11, 144 in Nippur)
ARADmu as royal deputy, [withdrawn from Aḫu-Wer] one fattened ram for Liban- ašgubi, ambassador of Libanu-ugšabaš, governor of Marḫaši; three fattened rams to the camp of Naplanum, Amorite, via Adda-saga, soldier [one] fattened ram for zu-bu-uš, ambassador of Yabrat of Šimaški, via Ur-Ḫaya, envoy, in Nippur; one bull, fifteen rams/goats, dragged to the kitchen for (meat of) the soldiers, via Šulgi-irimu; one fattened bull, two fattened rams for Me-Ištaran, when she celebrated the elunum festival
AS6 ii 24
(CST 466)
Namḫani as royal deputy, withdrawn from Aḫu-Wer one fattened ram for Liban-ašgubi, ambassador of Libanu-ugšabaš, governor of Marḫaši, via Šu-Šulgi, envoy one fattened ram for zu-bu-uš ambassador of Yabrat of Šimaški, via Naram-Adad, envoy; one for Aḫantibu, spearman
AS 6 iv 1
(CST 468)
ARADmu as royal deputy, withdrawn from Aḫu-Wer one fattened goat for Liban-ašgubi, ambassador of Libanu-ugšabaš, governor of Marḫaši, via Šu-Šulgi, envoy one fattened goat for Ili-Dagan, man of Ebla, via Nabi-Sin, envoy; one for Šu-Išḫara, man of Mari, via Sigteli, envoy, one for ..-gizi, ambassador of the governor of Abarnium, via Namḫani,
AS 6 iv 5
(MVN 13, 635)
ARADmu as royal deputy, are withdrawn from Aḫu-Wer one fattened goat for Liban- ašgubi, ambassador of Libanu-ugšabaš, governor of Marḫaši, via Šu-Šulgi, envoy one fattened goat for Ili-Dagan, man of Ebla, via Nabi-Sin, envoy; one for Šu-Išḫara, man of Mari, via Sigteli, envoy; three for [...]-Nanna(? or an-na), daughter-in-law of x-uš-x-tu-ra-ni-[x]-a
AS 6 iv 6
TRU 344)
ARADmu as royal deputy, withdrawn from Aḫu-Wer (ki a-ḫu-we*-*er–ta, ba-zi) one fattened goat, Liban- ašgubi, ambassador of Libanu-ugšabaš, governor of Marḫaši, via Šu-Šulgi, envoy, one fattened goat for Ili-Dagan, man of Ebla, via Nabi-Sin, envoy; one for Šu-Išḫara, man of Mari, via Sigteli, envoy; one fattened ram for Geme-Nanna, the daughter-in-law of bu3-u2-du, via Ku-Nanna, envoy, to the kitchen
AS 6 iv 9:
(JCS 7, 104 Smith C 473)
Ili-dan, envoy, as royal deputy, all are withdrawn from Aḫu-Wer one fattened ram for Liban-ašgubi, ambassador of Liban- ugšabaš, governor of Marḫaši, via Šu-Šulgi, envoy one fattened ram for Ili-Dagan, man of Ebla, via Nabi-Sîn, envoy; one for Šu-Išḫara, man of Mari, via Šigteli, envoy; two for i-din-ak, man of Mari, when he went to his city, via Lu-Damu, envoy
AS 6 iv 23
(Hirose 231)
ARADmu as royal deputy, withdrawn from Aḫu-Wer one fattened goat for Liban-ašgubi, the ambassador of Libanu-ugšabaš, governor of Marḫaši, via Lu-Damu, envoy one fattened goat for Ili-Dagan, man of Ebla, via Nabi-Sîn, envoy; one for Šu-Išḫara, man of Mari,via Šigteli, envoy
AS 6 iv 26
(MVN 11, 146)
ARADmu as royal deputy, withdrawn from Aḫu-Wer one fattened goat for Liban-ašgubi, ambassador of Libanu-ugšabaš, governor of Marḫaši, via Lu-Damu, envoy one fattened goat for Ili-Dagan, man of Ebla, via Nabi-Sîn, envoy; one for Šu-Išḫara, man of Mari, via Šigteli, envoy
AS 6 vii 1
(BPOA 7, 2202 in Ur)
Ili-dan, envoy, as royal deputy; withdrawn from Nalu [one] fattened ram for Liban-ašgubi, the ambassador of Libanu-ugšabaš, governor of Marḫaši, via Ur-Šarrukin, envoy one fattened ram and three rams for Ur-Baba, cook; one for Šulgi-abi, when Naplanum, his father, poured beer for him
AS 6 viii 2
(MVN 13, 539)
withdrawn from Aḫu-Wer one fattened goat for Liban-ašgubi, the ambassador of Libanu-ugšabaš, governor of Marḫaši, via ...
AS 6 viii 3
(RA 8, 191 11
withdrawn from Aḫu-Wer one fattened ram for Liban-aš- gubi, ambassador of Libanu-ugšabaš, governor of Marḫaši, via Lu-Damu, envoy
AS 6 viii 5
(SA 26)
Ili-dan, envoy, as royal deputy, withdrawn from Aḫu-Wer one fattened ram (udu niga*), for Liban-ašgubi, the ambassador of Libanu-ugšabaš, governor of Marḫaši, via Lu-Damu, envoy one fattened bull for Marḫuni, man of Ḫarši; one fattened bull for a-ḫa-pa2-tal, man of Ḫipilati, in Tummal, via Lugal-kagina, envoy
(AS 8 v 26
(SAT 2, 1116)
gifts (niĝ2-dab5) of the king, withdrawn from Enlila two cows for the men of Marḫaši, withdrawal of the king AS [8?] v 27 (MVN 13, 695), many Elamite soldiers got a sheep for the festival of Marḫaši
ŠS 9 v 25
(SAT 3, 1878)
gifts (niĝ2-dab5) of the king 114 rams for the men of Marḫaši, withdrawal of the king

 

Collation of MVN 13, 636: 4-8: Marḫuni of Ḫarši and Nia sukkal
MVN 13 636: 4-8, AS 8 i [18?] MVN 20, 28: r. 3-4, AS 7 viii 5 HUCA 29, 75 4: r. 8-10, AS 1 vi 25*-27
1 udu niga ad-da-ge-na, ensi2 ḫa-ar-šiki, 1 udu niga ma-ar-ḫu-ni, lu2 ˹ḫa*˺-ar*-šiki (not lu2 [mar]- ḫa-šiki), ĝiri3 [ni*-a*], sukkal, … 12-4) 1 udu ga-da-bi, lu2 ne-gi-ne-ḫu-um*ki, ĝiri3 ni*-a (not du3-a) sukkal, ša3 nibruki ma-ar-ḫu-ni, lu2 ḫa-ar-šiki, ĝiri3 ḫa-ni (for nam-ḫa-ni?) sukkal, ARAD2-mu maškim; (see further AS 1 viii 17 above and BIN 3, 402: rev. 2-4, AS 8 vi 10:) 1 udu niga, ma-ar-hu-ni, lu2 ḫa-ar-šiki, ĝiri3 ni-a, sukkal, ARAD2-mu maškim; mu ma-ar-ḫu-ni u3 erin2 mu-da-a-re-e- ša-a–še3, lu2 ḫa-ar-šiki–me, ĝiri3 ni-a, sukkal, <ARAD2*-mu>, maškim (Syracuse 480: 3, ŠS 1 iii 9)1 udu niga bil2-li, lu2 kin-gi4-a su2-su2-wa-da-ar, lu2 ia3-a-ab-ruki, ĝiri3 ni-a, sukkal.

 

§6. Banana, ambassador of a governor of Marḫaši, in Šu-Suen 3 x, 6 ii-iii, 9 ix and Ibbi-Sin 1 iii 25
After Amar-Suen 6 viii, Libanu-ugšabaš may have died, and his ambassador Liban-ašgubi might never have came back to Sumer. As a result, the relationship between Ur and Marḫaši may have become colder for six years. Then, on Šu-Sin 3 x 1, we learn that the new unnamed ruler of Marḫaši sent Banana, his ambassador, to Sumer. Here, Banana received 29 or 30 fattened rams as his monthly allowance on ŠS 6 ii-iii while his lord was given the title “the governor of Marḫaši,” but he, too, later disappeared. On ŠS 7 v 26, two oxen were issued to the kitchen for the men of Marḫaši, and on ŠS 9 v 26, they received 114 rams.

 

When the new king Ibbi-Sin came to the throne, Banana returned, possibly to congratulate the new king. On IS 1 iii 25, Banana traveled from Nippur to Uruk and five fattened rams were placed on his boat. A few months before, on ŠS 9 ix 3, Apilaša and Banana brought ten sheep to Tummal. Apilaša was a famous frontier general in the OB literature letters of the Ur III dynasty (Michalowski 2011: letters no. 1-3 and 11) and was the general of the troops of Bidadun (BPOA 7, 2350). Ibbi-Sin in his second year lost his campaign against Simurum and then no foreigner with tribute was recorded in the texts of Puzrish-Dagan which was closed at the end of this year.

 

Texts recording Banana, ambassador of the man of Marḫaši: ŠS 2 iv – IS 1 iii 25
ŠS 2 iv
(AUCT 1, 69)
in Naqabtum farm via Aya-ili ninety-five rams to the kitchen for the men of Marḫaši,
ŠS 3 x 1
(AUCT 2, 154)
via Kallamu, ARADmu as royal deputy, withdrawn from Nalu in Ur one fattened ram for Banana, ambassador of the man of Marḫaši,
ŠS 6 ii 1-30
(CTNMC 7)
withdrawn from du-u2-du thirty fattened rams for allowance of thirty days , for Banana, the ambassador of the governor of Marḫaši twenty-three fattened rams for twenty-three days to ia3-a-da-az, ambassador of Kirname, six for six days to zu-ur2-zu-ra, ambassador of Yabrat, for the Šimaški men
ŠS 6 iii 1-29
(CST 436)
withdrawn from Aḫu-Wer twenty-nine fattened rams for allowance of twenty-nine days for Banana, ambassador of the governor of Marḫaši,
[ŠS 6?]
(SA 85 (pl. 71))
... four ban2 of good beer, twelve ban2 of common beer, two liters of gu-flour and five of barley, twenty bundles of reed, one talent of figs for Banana, man of Marḫaši 1 guruš laborer with one ban2 of good beer, five liters of gu-flour; two men with one ban2 of good beer and 1/2 liter of gu-flour, serving for the interpreter of the sukkal envoy and the man of Marḫaši
ŠS 7 v 26
(SET 78)
withdrawn from Lugal-melam (keeper of cattle) one cow for soldiers, and one bull and one cow for the men of Marḫaši, to the kitchen asses and oxen to the kitchen (of the 2nd-27th days)
ŠS 9 v 25 (iv 5-30 and v 1-29)
SAT 3, 1878)
iv 5 - v 29: 685 rams, the royal withdrawal, royal gifts and slaughtered rams v 1-24-26-29 *<305 rams>: v 25: 114 rams, niĝ2-dab5 gifts for the men of Marḫaši; total 419 rams, gifts of king iv 5-30: 266 rams, as the withdrawal of the king and butchered rams (for meat): ba-zi du-du, kišib3 u4-de3-niĝ2-saga
ŠS 9 ix 3
(ASJ 16, 107 7)
twenty-six(?) fattened rams/goats to Tummal via Banana and Apilaša  
IS 1 iii 25
(JCS 10, 28 5)
ARADmu as royal deputy, withdrawn from Šulgi-ili five fattened rams for Banana, ambassador of the [*ensi2] of Marḫaši, are serviced on the boat, when he went to Uruk thirteen fattened rams to the kitchen as the meat of messengers (kas4); one fattened bull, five fattened rams for Ipḫuḫa, man of Simanum, when he first entered the City

 

§7. Conclusions
§7.1.
 Marḫaši, the neighboring state of Elam, was said to submit to Sumer for the first time in the hegemony reign of Lugal-anne-mundu of Adab in the Early Dynastic Period. Later, Sargon and Rimuš of the Akkadian empire conquered Elam and Parahšum (=Marḫaši) again. During the Ur III Empire, Šulgi ruled Elam, conquered foreign lands beyond Elam, and maintained a good relationship with Marḫaši, marrying his daughter to a son of a king of Marḫaši in his 17th ruling year.

 

§7.2. In the Ur III period, from Š 43 iii to AS 1, Ḫašip-atal, the man of Marḫaši with Lugal-kagina, envoy of Sumer, appeared in Sumer. Šu-salla, Tišandaḫi, Kimani, EN(Bel)-ili, Šulgi-ili and Šuruš-kin, the six generals with Akkadian names of the Ur dynasty, as well as other generals, captain and messengers came with the ambassadors (lu2 kin-gi4-a) of the rulers (“man”) of Marḫaši. On Š 46 ix 18 (BIN 3, 12), ama-ĝiri3še-er, mostly written as ama-ĝiri3er, a Sumerian noble lady who might be the wife of Ḫašip-atal and the princess of Ur who was married to the son of a king of Marḫaši in Šulgi 17, when she was issued five fattened rams sent to the kitchen for herself and Ḫašip-atal. On Šulgi 48 xii 12 (UDT 116), 4 fattened rams ewes was presented to the libation place of the dead Šulgi and one fattened ram was issued to the e2-uz-ga royal dining hall for the living queen (nin, either Geme-Ninlil or Šulgi-simti). Likewise, ten fattened rams/goats for the kitchen were issued for the messengers in Nippur, and one goat was given to ama-ĝiri3er, possibly a princess married to Marḫaši, who came with the messengers from Marḫaši to Sumer possibly to attend the funeral of her father, Šulgi, in Nippur. On AS 1 v 29, ama-ĝiri3er came back to Sumer, with the ambassadors of both Arwilugbi, ruler (“man”) of Marḫaši, and that of his son who might be born by this Sumerian princess, or her grandson.

 

§7.3. On AS 1 ix 21 (MVN 13, 529), the favor of one bull and five ram/goats were granted each to EN-ili, šu-sal-la, Šuruš-kin, dšul-<gi>-i3-li2, Nur-ili, … and ap-na u32-du-ru, men of Šuda-e, Dukra, man of Kakmi, as well as five fattened rams to Bibra, Šimaškeans and one fattened goat for ama-ĝiri3ši-ir.

 

§7.4. In Š 47 iv (=Š 46' xii'), Ḫašip-atal bears the title “general" (šagina) which means that Ḫašip-atal now became a general of the Ur Dynasty. On Š 47 xii 4, Ḫašip-atal and nin-ḫe2-du7, a Sumerian princess and daughter-in-law of Ḫašip-atal, each sent three norms (one norm = one bull with ten sheep/goats) of tributes to the Ur dynasty. Ḫašip-atal became the general of Arrapḫum from AS 5 v 25 or before, and his son Puzur-Šulgi, was general from AS 8 v. He also occurred in a text of ŠS 3.

 

§7.5. Before Amar-Suen 1 v, Arwilugbi became the “man” (ruler) of Marḫaši, and was called by the Ur court “the man of Marḫaši” which means not a vassal of Ur. He sent his unnamed ambassador and that of his son to Sumer. On AS 1 v 28-29, vi 8, 21 and AS 1 viii 17. the ambassador of Arwilugbi and that of his son stayed in Sumer, accompanied by Lugal-kagina, the sukkal envoy of Ur. This son might be his successor, named Liban(u)-ugšabaš, the governor (ensi2) of Marḫaši after him. On AS 1 v 29, ama-ĝiri3er, possibly a Sumerian princess married to a king of Marḫaši (Ḫašip-atal?), came with the two ambassadors. On vi 21, ama-ĝiri3er, appears together with the two ambassadors, but on AS 1 xii 12, she was issued one fattened ram alone.

 

§7.6. Before AS 3 xii, Libanu-ugšabaš replaced Arwilugbi as the king of Marḫaši. Amur-ili, the first ambassador of Libanu-ugšabaš, was sent to Sumer and stayed in Sumer for six months, AS 3 xii – 4 v 15. The first ambassador of Libanu-ugšabaš was in Sumer on AS 3 xii 28, AS 4 i 6, 14, 23, 27, ii 25, [iii] 7, iii 22, v 6, 9 and 15 (12 texts). This Libanu-ugšabaš enjoyed a closer relationship with the Ur court than Arwilugbi, and bears title of governor (ensi2) of Marḫaši. Liban-ašgubi, ambassador of Libanu-ugšabaš, governor of Marḫaši (AS 5 i – 6 viii 5) replaces Amur-ili, an Akkadian by name, as the ambassador of Libanu-ugšabaš from AS 5 i, and appeared in the court of Ur on AS 5 v 9, vii 5, viii 3, 11-12, 24, ix 1, xi 13, AS 6 ii 16-[17], 24, iv 1, 5-6, 9, 26, vii 1, viii 2-3, 5. During Amar-Suenn 5, the Sumerian envoys who accompanied Liban-ašgubi were Ur-Šarru-gen, four times during AS 5, and Ḫani (=Namḫani?), Lu-Damu, Lu-Enki and Namḫani once each. During Amar-Sin 6 ii 16 – iv 9, the accompanying envoy was Šu-Šulgi, and then from AS 6 iv 26 to viii 5, the accompanying envoy was again Lu-Damu,

 

§7.7. After Amar-Suen 6 viii 5, Libanu-ugšabaš, governor of Marḫaši, may have died and his ambassador Liban-ašgubi apparently never comes back to Sumer. The relationship between Ur and Marḫaši may have become colder for six years (AS 6 ix-ŠS 3 ix). On Šu-Sin 3 x 1, the new unnamed ruler of Marḫaši sends Banana, his ambassador, to Sumer. Here, Banana received fattened rams as his monthly allowances on ŠS 6 ii-iii while his lord was given the title governor of Marḫaši. Later he, too, disappears from our records. On ŠS 7 v 26, two oxen were issued to the kitchen for the men of Marḫaši, and on ŠS 9 v 26, they received 114 rams as the king’s gifts. Banana worked in Sumer for seven years until Ibbi-Sin 1 iii 25 and from then on, no man of Marḫaši is recorded. At this time, the Ur dynasty becomes very weak and its animal center in Puzriš-Dagan was closed at the end of Ibbi-Sin’s second year.

 

 


 

Bibliography

 

Goetze, Albrecht
1953 “Four Ur Dynasty Tablets mentioning Foreigners.” JCS 7, 103-107.
Klein, Jacob
1990 "A Hitherto Unknown Ur III Princess.” ZA 80, 20-39.
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Version: 27 July 2017