In ASJ 8, Setsuko Oh’e gave a systematic discussion of the agricultural festival in Tummal (Oh’e 1986: 121-132). In recent years, an increasing number of new texts have become available on this subject. In this article, I will focus on the regular offering (sa2-du11) to Ninlil at Tummal by collecting all related documents and correcting several errors made in previous publications.
There are currently 13 Ur III administrative documents concerning the regular offering to Ninlil at Tummal, all of which are from Drehem, dated from Š 42 to ŠS 2. According to the date of these texts, they can be divided into two categories: one category of documents dated on the 29th day of the month (u4 30-la2-1-kam); the others, simply contained in the monthly record (iti 1-kam). Based on terms for expenditures, the documents may also be subdivided into two different categories: the first one with the terms “zi-ga / ša3 Tum-ma-al / ki PN”; the second, with the terms “ša3 Tum-ma-al / ki PN-ta ba-zi.”
The species of livestock accounted for in the documents are all barley-fed sheep and goats (mainly udu niga and maš2 gal niga, as well as a few gukkal niga, u8 niga, u8 gukkal niga, and sila4 niga). There were typically 30 sheep and/or goats recorded in all monthly records, 29 sheep and goats in all texts dated on the 29th day. In each transaction, the number of sheep is certainly higher than that of the goats, with two transactions (TCND 196 and TCND 203) transpiring entirely without goats.
There are three disbursal officials involved in these transactions, initially Ašne’u (in Š 42), then En-diĝirĝu (from Š 45 to AS 8), and finally Kurbilak (ŠS 2 and unknown). It should be noted that the texts involving Kurbilak also include a ĝiri3 official Enum-Adad, the “šar2-ra-ab-du”-official (RA 79: 26 16), but the texts involving the other two disbursal officials are without ĝiri3 officials (also see Tsouparopoulou 2009:102-106 and Tsouparopoulou 2013). Additionally, the names of the years were destroyed in two texts (PDT 2, 1268 and P313095 [unpubl.]).
The following are my corrections and comments for part of the texts:
- TCND 196: line 4 should be iti 1-kam, not u4! 1-kam. The sign iti is clear, and the tablet is surely a monthly record. W. Heimpel’s review for this publication did not refer to this error. (Heimpel 1994: 278-282)
- TCND 199: the end of line 3 lacked la2, correctly sa2-du11 dNin-lil2-la2, by rechecking its photograph in CDLI.
- SumTemDocs 13: the end of line 4 also lacked la2.
- RA 9: 48 SA 99: the obverse cannot be currently available, and was probably destroyed. According to the parallel texts, it may be recovered with a total of 30 sheep and/or goats on the basis of its monthly record. The end of line 1 of the reverse lacked la2, as well.
- Nisaba 8, 131: line 4 should be sa2-du11 dNin-lil2-la2, not ki inim-dNin-lil2-la2.
- AUCT 1, 694: line 5 should be iti 1-kam, not u4 1-kam. (for the error, see Sigrist 1984: 53)
- TCND 203: line 3 should be iti 1-kam, not u4 1-kam.
- PDT 2, 1189: line 1 can be probably recovered with 20 [udu] niga; line 2 can be certainly recovered with 10-la2- maš2 gal niga; the sum of animals is 29, matching the 29th day. The end of line 3 lacked la2. Finally, the left edge should be 30-la2-1 ⌜udu⌝, not 30 ⌜udu⌝.
- RA 79, 26 16: for the discussion of the title šar2-ra-ab-du, see Garfinkle 2003: 171.
- PDT 2, 1268: this text’s year name was totally destroyed. Based on the presence of disbursal official Kurbilak, it probably belongs to ŠS. In addition, the ends of lines 1 and 2 lacked niga, and line 3 lacked la2. Finally, the left edge can be recovered with [30 (udu)].
- P313095 (unpubl.): The reverse of this unpublished text from a private collection containing the name of the disbursal official, month, and year is almost destroyed. I would like to thank Prof. R. Englund and CDLI for providing me with the tablet’s photograph and agreeing to publish this tablet here.
|Obverse||1||11 udu niga||11 barley-fed rams|
|2||2 gukkal niga||2 barley-fed fat-tailed rams,|
|3||2 u8 niga||2 barley-fed ewes,|
|4||1 u8 gukkal niga||1 barley-fed fat-tailed ewe,|
|5||13 maš2 gal niga||13 barley-fed male goats,|
|6||sa2-du11 dNin-lil2-la2||as regular offering to Ninlil,|
|7||⌜u4⌝ 30-la2-1-kam||which is on the 29th day (of the month),|
|9||[ša3 Tum-ma-a]l?||at Tummal?|
|10||[ki PN]||from somebody;|
|11||[iti ...] x||Month of [...]|
|12||[mu ...]||Year: [...]|
|Left edge||13||30-la2-1||Sum: 29 (sheep).|
Appendix: chronological listing of texts
on the regular offering to Ninlil at Tummal
|Š42 vi -||TCND 196||30 udu niga||Ašne’u||zi-ga|
|Š 45 vii 29||TCND 199||27 udu niga, 2 maš2 gal niga||En-diĝirĝu||zi-ga|
|Š 47 ix -||SumTemDocs 13||26 udu niga, 2 u8 niga, 2 maš2 gal niga||En-diĝirĝu||zi-ga|
|AS 3 vi -||RA 9 48 SA 99||[...]||En-diĝirĝu||ba-zi|
|AS 5 xii 29||Nisaba 8, 131||13 udu niga, 1 gukkal niga, 15 maš2 gal niga||En-diĝirĝu||zi-ga|
|AS 6 iii 29||TCND 403||18 udu niga, 11 maš2 gal niga||En-diĝirĝu||zi-ga|
|AS 7 v -||AUCT 1, 694||17 udu niga, 2 gukkal niga, 11 maš2 gal niga||En-diĝirĝu||zi-ga|
|AS 7 viii -||TCND 203||30 udu niga||zi-ga|
|AS 8 i 29||BPOA 7 2505||17 udu niga, 2 gukkal niga, 10 maš2 gal niga||En-diĝirĝu||zi-ga|
|AS 8 iii 29||PDT 2 1189||20 [udu?] niga, 9 maš2 gal niga||En-diĝirĝu||zi-ga|
|ŠS 2 xii 29||RA 79 26 16||25 udu niga, 1 u8 niga, 3 maš2 gal niga||Kurbilak||ba-zi|
|XX iv -||PDT 2, 1268||17 udu niga, 13 maš2 gal niga||Kurbilak||ba-zi|
|XX X 29||P313095||11 udu niga, 2 sila4 niga, 2 u8 niga, 1 u8 gukkal niga, 13 maš2 gal niga||[PN]||[zi-ga(?)]|
|2003||“SI.A-a and His Family: the Archive of a 21st Century (BC) Entrepreneur”. ZA 93:161-198.|
|1994||“Review of Testi cuneiformi neo-sumerici da Drehem, n.0001-0412 by Alfonso Archi; Francesco Pomponio”. JAOS 114:278-282.|
|1986||“An Agricultural Festival in Tummal in the Ur III Period”. ASJ 8:121-132.|
|1984||Neo-Sumerian Account Texts in the Horn Archaeological Museum, Volume 1, AUCT 1. Andrews University Press: Berrien Springs.|
|2009||The material face of bureaucracy: Writing, sealing and archiving tablets for the Ur III state at Drehem. PhD Dissertation, Cambridge University.|
|2013||“A Reconstruction of the Puzriš-Dagan Central Livestock Agency”. CDLJ 2013: 2.|