Inscribed cuneiform artifacts catelogued by the CDLI number nearly 350,000 individual pieces. While those tagged as “Royal/Monumental” number just 20,000, they assume a disproportionately large role in history, literature, and linguistics in the several sub-fields of cuneiform studies. Building, historical, or votive inscriptions mentioning royal personages are found not just on tablets of clay, stone, or precious metals, but also on clay tags, bricks, nails, cones, cylinders, and prisms; on stone stelae, wall slabs, plaques, statues, socles, vessels, mace heads, door pivots, and foundation pegs; and on metal foundation deposits, figurines, vessels and weapon blades. CDLI’s sub-project dedicated to these texts is directed by Daniel A. Foxvog.

Introduction to the project
Oracc: Sumerian royal
Oracc: neo-Assyrian royal
Terms of use


All inscriptions sorted by publication

Translations of all texts
   translations of selected texts:
   Early Dynastic IIIb
   Gudea Cylinders
   Gudea Statues
   Ur III
   Codex Hammurapi

Score versions of all texts
   scores of selected texts:
   Urukagina Reforms
   Codex Ur-Namma
   Codex Lipit-Ištar
   Codex Ešnunna
   Middle Assyrian Laws

Inscriptions by period:
   ED I-II (ca. 2900-2700 BC)
   ED IIIa (ca. 2600-2500 BC)
   ED IIIb (ca. 2500-2340 BC)
   Old Akkadian (ca. 2500-2340 BC)
   Lagash II (ca. 2200-2100 BC)
   Ur III (ca. 2100-2000 BC)
   Early Old Babylonian (ca. 2000-1900 BC)
   Old Assyrian (ca. 1950-1850 BC)
   Old Babylonian (ca. 1900-1600 BC)
   Middle Hittite (ca. 1500-1100 BC)
   Middle Babylonian (ca. 1400-1100 BC)
   Middle Assyrian (ca. 1400-1000 BC)
   Middle Elamite (ca. 1300-1000 BC)
   Neo-Assyrian (ca. 911-612 BC)
   Neo-Babylonian (ca. 911-612 BC)
   Achaemenid (547-331 BC)
   Hellenistic (323-63 BC)

Inscriptions by material:
   Bone & related

Inscriptions by artifact type:
   Other (reliefs, stelae, door
      sockets, mace heads, etc.)

Search all CDLI inscriptions

The image to the right depicts a typical foundation stone tablet from the Sumerian ruler Gudea (ca. 2120 BC), with confirmation of the construction of a city wall for Ningirsu, the tutelary deity of the capital. The artifact is kept in Balitmore’s Walters Art Museum; the only other known copy of this text is recorded on a stone tablet in the Louvre.

It reads (with Wiki-links):
    For Ningirsu, the mighty warrior of Enlil,
    his lord: Gudea, the governor of Lagash,
    restored his (Ningirsu’s) Girsu Wall.


A cooperative effort of Daniel A. Foxvog
and the Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative