The Carian Villages: Notes

1 Diodorus 19.12.1, ‘παρεχείμασε μὲν τήϛ Βαβυλονίαϛ ἐν ταῖϛ ὀνομαζομέναιϛ Καρῶν κώμαιϛ.’

 

2 Diodorus 19.27.4; cf. Bevan 1902: 44.

 

3 Wesseling 1746: 326 and n. 86, ‘Diceres propter Carrhas fuisse, mora Abrahami & Crassi clade nobilitatas, nisi illae L. XIX, 91. extra Babyloniam, uti erant, locarentur.’

 

4 Droysen 1836: 263 n. 5; cf. Diodorus 17.110. 3 ‘After this he marched with his army from Susa, crossed the Tigris, and encamped in the villages called Carae. Thence for four days he marched through Sittacenê and came to the place called Sambana’, after which he proceeded to ‘the region called Bagistanê’ and eventually ‘to Ecbatana in Media.’ Note, however, Niese 1893: 259 n. 1: ‘Ob die Karerdörfer dieselben sind, wie die von Diodor [X]VII 110, 3 erwähnten Κάραι ϰῶμαι, wie es anzunehmen nahe liegt, ist nicht sicher.’

 

5 Herzfeld 1948: 39; cf. Högemann 1985: 108-109 and n. 35, who suggested that in the Achaemenid period ‘das ganze Mündungsgebiet von Euphrat und Tigris Krkā benannt worden.’ This relates to krkā/charax, not to Carians. For the ethnic, see Eilers 1935.

 

6 E.g. Bosworth 2002: 108 n. 42. Anson 2015: 174, located the Carian villages ‘approximately 20 miles northeast of Babylon’ but the basis of this conjecture is unclear.

 

7 Arrian 3.8.5: ‘The Carians who had been transplanted and Sitacenians were brigaded with the Babylonians.’ Cf. Heckel 1997: 221 n. 46 who linked these Carians with those of Eumenes’ Carian villages. Arrian’s juxtaposition of Carians and Sittacenians led Christensen 1993: 59 to the unjustified suggestion that, the ‘Carian villages’ were located ‘in the Sittacene district, on the east bank of the Tigris.’

 

8 For the original publication see BRM 1, 71, where the relevant ethnic was misread as kar-dak-a and understood as a reference to a ‘man from Kardak.’ The correct reading was published in Eilers 1935: 207.

 

9 Weissbach 1939: 195: ‘Eilers verdanke ich den ersten Hinweis auf die Tatsache, dass diese Karer in den Zeiten Artaxerxes’ I. und Darius’ II. in der Gegend von Nippur eine Ansiedlung (aluban-né-šú, auch aluKAK-UR-MAḪ geschrieben) besassen.’ See BE 9, 28 obv. 2, 50 obv. 5 and BE 10, 93 obv. 5.

 

10 Cf. MacGinnis 2014: 121, ‘The Ionians and Carians who transported timber from Babylon to Susa may well represent the populations deported to lower Babylonia and Elam from Ionia in the aftermath of the revolt. On the other hand, tempting as it is to suggest that the Carians in Borsippa in the reigns of Cambyses and Darius I had also been deported thither following the revolt, Waerzeggers has convincingly established that they had come via Egypt and were possibly mercenaries.’ Cf. Christensen 1993: 59 who supposed the Carian villages originated with the post-revolt deportations. On the unlikely possibility of the Carians mentioned in DSf having been deportees see Badian 2004.

 

11 Raaflaub 2004: 207 and n. 12 with refs. Fantalkin 2001: 141 disputes this on the grounds that there is no clear Assyrian evidence.

 

12 Waerzeggers 2006: 7; Jursa & Waerzeggers 2009: 262. Zadok 2004: 114 noted that, ‘The term ti-ir-gu-ma-nu (‘interpreter’) is recorded only once in N/LB, namely in BM 109365 … from Borsippa, 9.X.517/6 BCE. This deed is a receipt for rations … which are assigned to [f]Tu-tu-bé-e-su, the Carian woman (uruKa-ar-sa-‘-i-<tu>) until the end of the same month (X). They consist of unspecified quantities of flour, cress, oil and salt. The receipt belongs to the archive of Ardiya s. of Šulā desc. of Iliya, who distributed the rations, and was written by the same scribe as that of BM 26756 (unpubl.), issued in Borsippa half a year earlier, on 9.IV.517/6 BCE … The interpreter Tatannu, whose name is Akkadian, is described as Carian’.

 

13 Already noted by Eilers 1940: 227: ‘Wie andere Volksgruppen … waren auch die Karer des Zweistromlandes unter der Obhut eines šaknu zusammengefaßt.’

 

14 BE 9, 28 from Artaxerxes I year 31 = 434 BC and BE 9, 50 from Artaxerxes I year 36 = 429 BC.

 

15 PBS 2/1, 42 from Darius II year 3 = 421 BC.

 

16 BE 10, 93 from Darius II year 4 = 420 BC.

 

17 PBS 2/1, 126 from Darius II year 6 = 417 BC.

 

18 Heller 2010: 343, ‘Benannt sind sie nach einem bislang unbekannt gebliebenen karischen Toponym.’

 

19 Mentioned in OECT 10, 404, 406. See Zadok 1985: 31.

 

20 Eilers 1940: 226: ‘Vielleicht gelingt es in umfassender Untersuchung einmal, die örtliche Festlegung des alten Kanalsystems im Zweistromlande an Hand der heutigen Geländespuren durchzuführen, so daß auch die genauere Lage der beiden genannten Wasserläufe und damit möglicherweise sogar der Ort dieser babylonischen Karersiedlung bekannt wird.’

 

21 Stolper 1999; cf. Zadok 2005: 81-82. Van Driel 1989: 206 suggested that‘Their land is situated on a canal called Nar-šarri, possibly the canal towards Uruk South of Nippur in an area where there was crown property.’

 

22 Tubach 1995: 102-103: ‘vermutlich einer Ḫaṭru-Organisation, die zum Aufenthalt eines größeren Heereskontingentes die nötige militärische Infrastruktur bot (317/16 v.Chr.).’