Cuneiform Digital Library Bulletin
2020:001
ISSN 1540-8760
© Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative
 

 


A New Edition of the Elamite Version of the Behistun Inscription (II)

Saber Amiri Parian <s.amiriparian@gmail.com>
(Karaj, Iran)

Keywords
Ancient Iran, Elamite, Darius, Behistun



§1. Introduction

§1.1. After a new edition of the first column of the Elamite version of the Behistun inscription was published in 2017 (Amiri 2017), I examined the second column and carried out a similar study for the purpose of producing a precise copy as well as collating previous editions with its cuneiform text. With the experiences I have gained, I hope to publish the remaining sections of the Elamite version, particularly the third column, in which erosion damaged many of its passages.

§1.2. The newer Elamite version (hereafter the Elamite version) is a copy of the older one, which is situated to the right of the sculptured reliefs of the monument of Behistun.[1] The Elamite version was engraved in three large columns directly beneath the Babylonian version. Moreover, a number of small Elamite inscriptions are placed on the empty parts of the relief panel of the monument or on its lower margins. This contribution offers an edition of the second column of the Elamite version. The remaining sections will be published in subsequent articles.[2]

§2. The state of the second column

§2.1. Unlike the first and third columns of the Elamite version, which include severely eroded portions, the cuneiform signs in the second column are mostly legible. However, water damage to the upper section of the column partially eroded some of its signs. In addition, further water damage to the right section of the first column and its seepage into the left section of the second column has eroded the signs at the beginning of its lines (see figures 1, 2 and 4). On the other hand, damage from a solution of water and calcareous compounds to the top of the third column and its seepage into the right section of the second column has left tufa deposits on some signs at the end of several lines (see figures 1 and 5). Except for these affected portions, the majority of the passages in the second column are sufficiently intact that they seem to have the same quality as at the time of engraving. As Cameron, who closely examined the inscription in 1948 and 1957, mentioned:


"This column [= the second column] has suffered less damage than any other portion of the Bisitun [=Behistun] inscription." (Cameron 1960 , 65)

§3. General notes on the engraving

§3.1. According to my measurements of the inscription, the dimensions of the second column are 341.3 cm in height and 209 cm in width.[3] It was engraved on the smoothed face of the rock and there is a space of 3 cm between its borders and that of the two other columns.

§3.2. Several reasons might be suggested to show that the second column was engraved in conjunction with the other two. Accordingly, there are reasons to be suggested that the engraver(s) who incised the cuneiform signs in the second column were different from those who worked on the two others. However, this topic requires an extended discussion which does not fit into this article.[4]

§3.3. Detailed examination of the second column substantiates that the wedges at the beginning of its lines particularly in left lower section of the column were more shallowly cut than the wedges in middle and right sections (see figure 6). In addition, such manner of engraving is observable at the end of right section of the first column. Probably, this is due to more rock hardness in the area wherein they were cut.

§4. The text

§4.1. The second column of the Elamite version contains a royal text with a detailed account of Darius the Great's battles and his suppression of a number of revolts happened after his expedition to Babylon and killing Nidintu-Bel the Babylonian rebel. Like other columns of the Behistun inscription, the text in the second column is divided into segments each one beginning: "and Darius the king says,". They are preceded by a blank space. This column contains 14 segments, hereafter designated "paragraphs" (abbr. par. or §) and 85 lines. In this article, the text of the second column (= paragraphs 20-33) is presented in some detail.[5]

§4.2. Transliteration and translation[6].

par.20[7] (1)dišda-ri-ia-ma-u-išeššana[8] na-an-ri ku-iš dišu2 ba-pi-li ša3-nu-gi-ut ap-pi dišda-a-ia-u2[9]-(2)dišu2 ir be-ip-ti-ip dišbar-šipx(EŠ) a-ak dišḫa-tam5-tup a-ak dišma-da-be a-ak diš2-šu-ra a-ak dišmu-(3)iz-za-ri-ia-ip a-ak dišpar2-tu-ma-ip a-ak dišmar-ku-iš-be a-ak dišsa-ud-da-ku-iš a-ak dišša2-ak-(4)ka4-be Darius the king says: While I was in Babylon these nations rebelled against me: The Persians and the Elamites and the Medes and the Assyrians and the Egyptians and the Parthians and the Margians and Sattagydia and the Scythians.
par. 21 a-ak dišda-ri-ia-ma-u-iš dišeššana na-an-ri dišru-uḫ ki-ir dišmar-ti-ia ḫi-še dišzi2-in-(5)za-ak-ri-iš dišša2-ak-ri ḫal-meš ku-uk-kan2-na-ka4-an ḫi-še dišbar-šipx(EŠ)-ik-ki ḫa-mi mur-da-ak ḫu-pir2-ri dišḫa-(6)tam5-tup-ik-ki i-ma-ka4 dišta-šu-ip2-be ḫi zi2-la ap ti-ri-iš na-an-ri dišu2 dišum-man-nu-iš dišeššana dišḫa-tam5-tup-na ma-(7)ra a-ak dišu2 ḫa-me-ir dišḫal-tam5-ti in kan2-na ša3-nu-gi-ut me-ni dišḫal-tam5-ti-ip[10] dišu2-ik-ki-mar ip-ši-ip dišmar-(8)ti-ia ḫu-pir2-ri ak-ka4 ir-ša2-ir-ra ap-pi-ni ti-ri-iš-ti ir mar-ri-iš-ša2 ir ḫal-pi-iš And Darius the king says: One man, Martiya by name, Zinzakriš, his son, (a) town, Kukkannakan by name, in Persia, dwelt. He rose up in Elam and the people thus to them (he) said: I (am) Ummannuš, king of the Elamites, and at that time I was near Elam. Afterwards, the Elamites feared me; (they) seized that Martiya who called himself their chief, and killed him.
par. 22 a-ak dišda-(9)ri-ia-ma-u-iš dišeššana na-an-ri dišru-uḫ ki-ir dišpir2-ru-mar-ti-iš ḫi-še ḫu-pir2-ri ma-da-be-ik-ki[11] i-ma-ka4 (10)dištaš-šu-ip2-be ḫi zi2-la ap ti-ri-iš-ša2 na-an-ri dišu2 dišša2-at-tar-ri-da dišnumun-meš dišma-ak-iš-tar-ra-na ni-ma-(11)an-ki ma-ra me-ni dištaš-šu-ip2 dišma-da-be ap-pa u2-el-man-nu ḫu-pi-be dišu2-ik-ki-mar be-ip-ti-ip ḫu- (12)pir2-ri-ik-ki pa-ri-iš dišma-da-be-ik-ki dišeššana-me ḫu-pir2-ri ḫu-ut-taš dištaš-šu-ip2 dišbar-šipx(EŠ) a-ak dišma-da-be dišu2 da-(13)u2? ḫa-ri-ik-ki ša3-ri me-ni dišu2 dištaš-šu-ip2 dišma-da-be-ik-ki ti-ib-be da-aḫ dišmi-tar-na ḫi-še dišbar-šir8 ki-ir dišu2 diš(14)li-ba-ru-ri ḫu-pir2-ri dišir-ša2-ir-ra ap-pi-ni ir ḫu-ud-da ḫi zi2-la ap ti-ri-ia mi-te-iš dištaš-šu-ip2 dišma-(15)da-be ak-ka4-be dišu2-ni-na in-ni ti-ri-man-pi ḫu-pi-be ḫal-pi-iš man-ka4 me-ni dišmi-tar-na dištaš-šu-ip2 i-da-ka4 ma-da-be-(16)ik-ki sa-ak sa-ap dišma-da-be-ik-ki ir pa-ri-ik ḫal-meš ma-ru-iš ḫi-še ma-da-be-ik-ki ḫa-mi ša2-par2-rak2-(17)um-me ḫu-ud-da-iš ak-ka4 dišma-da-be-na ir-ša2-ir-ra ḫa-me-ir in-ni ḫa-ri-ir du-ra-maš-da pi-ik-ti dišu2 da-(18)iš za-u-mi-in du-ra-maš-da-na dištaš-šu-ip2 ap-pa dišu2-ni-na dištaš-šu-ip2 ap-pa dišbe-ti-ip-na ir-še-ik-ki ḫal-pi-iš 20(19)-7[12] dna-an diti-meš dḫa-na-ma-ak-kaš-na pi-ir-ka4 ḫi zi2-la ša2-par2-rak2-um-me ḫu-ud-da-iš me-ni dištaš-šu-ip2 ap-pa dišu2-(20)ni-na aš2-ki in-ni ḫu-ud-da-iš dišda-a-ia-u2-iš ka4-um-pan-taš ḫi-še dišma-da-be-ik-ki ḫa-mi za-ti-iš (21)ku-iš dišu2 ši-in-nu-gi-ut dišma-da-be-ik-ki And Darius the king says: One man, Phraortes by name, he rose up in Media, thus to the people said: I am Šattarrida of the family of Cyaxares. Then the Mede troops who were in the palace rebelled against me (and) went (over) to him. (He) became king in Media. The Persian and the Median troops with me, were few. Then I sent forth the troops to Media. Hydarnes by name, a Persian, my servant, I made their chief, thus I said to them: Go forth! The Median troops who do not call themselves mine, kill them! Then Hydarnes together with the troops went off to the Media. When he went to Media, in the town, Maruš by name, in Media, there (he) did battle. (He) who was chief among the Medes wasn't present at that time. Ahuramazda sent me aid. (By) the intercession of Ahuramazda, my troops slaughtered many of the rebellious troops. 27 days of the month Hanamakaš had passed, thus (they) did battle. Then my troops did not accomplish anything. (In a) district, Kampantaš by name, in Media, there they awaited for me until I came to Media.
par. 23 a-ak dišda-ri-ia-ma-u-iš dišeššana na-an-ri dišda-tur-ši-iš (22)i-še dišḫar-mi-nu-ia-ir ki-ir dišu2 dišli-ba-ru-ri ḫu-pir2-ri dišu2 dišḫar-mi-nu-ia-ip-ik-ka4 ir ḫu-ut-la[13] ḫi zi2-la (23)ḫi ti-ri-ia mi-da[14] dištaš-šu-ip2 ap-pa dišbe-ti-ip dišu2-ni-na in-ni ti-ri-man-pi ḫu-pi-be ḫal-pi-iš man-ka4 me-ni dišda-tur-ši-iš (24)sa-ak sa-ap dišḫar-mi-nu-ia-ip-ik-ki ir pa-ri-ik-ka4 dišbe-ti-ip pir2-ru ir ša2-ir-ra-ib-ba[15] dišda-tur-ši-iš ir-ma (25)ši-in-nu-ip ša2-par2-rak2-um-me ḫu-ud-ti-nu-un u2-ba[16] me-ni dišda-tur-ši-iš ša2-par2-rak2-um-me ap-ma da-iš ḫu-ma-nu-iš su-iz-za (26)ḫi-še dišḫar-mi-nu-ia-ip-ik-ki ḫa-mi du-ra-maš-da pi-ik-ti dišu2 da-iš za-u-mi-in du-ra-maš-da-na dištaš-šu-ip2 (27)ap-pa dišu2-ni-na dištaš-šu-ip2 ap-pa dišbe-ti-ip-na ir-še-ik-ki ḫal-pi-iš 8 dna-an diti-meš dtu-ir-ma-ir-na pi-ir-ka4 (28)ḫi zi2-la ša2-par2-rak2-um-me ḫu-ud-da-iš a-ak ša2-rak2 2-um-me-ma dišbe-ti-ip pir2-ru ir ša2-ir-ra-ap-ba dišda-tur-ši-iš (29)ir-ma ši-in-nu-ip ša2-par2-rak2-um-me ḫu-ud-ti-nu-un u2-ba me-ni ḫal-mar-ri-iš ti-ik-ra ḫi-še ḫar-mi-nu-ia-ip-ik-(30)ki ḫa-mi ša2-par2-rak2-um-me ḫu-ud-da-iš du-ra-maš-da pi-ik-ti dišu2 da-iš za-u-mi-in du-ra-maš-da-na dištaš-šu-(31)ip2 ap-pa dišu2-ni-na dištaš-šu-ip2 ap-pa dišbe-ti-ip-na ir-še-ik-ki ḫal-pi-iš 10(+)8 dna-an diti-meš dtu-ir-ma-ir-na (32)pi-ir-ka4 ḫi zi2-la ša2-par2-rak2-um-me ḫu-ud-da-iš a-ak ša2-rak2 3-um-me-ma dišbe-ti-ip pir2-ru ir ša2-ir-ra-ib-ba dišda-(33)tur-ši-iš ir-ma ši-in-nu-ip ša2-par2-rak2-um-me ḫu-ud-ti-nu-un ḫu-ba ḫal-mar-ri-iš u2-i-ia-ma ḫi-še dišḫar-mi-nu-ia-ip-(34)ik-ki ḫa-mi ša2-par2-rak2-um-me ḫu-ud-da-iš du-ra-maš-da pi-ik-ti dišu2 da-iš za-u-mi-in du-ra-maš-da-na dištaš-šu-(35)ip2 ap-pa dišu2-ni-na dištaš-šu-ip2 ap-pa dišbe-ti-ip-na ir-še-ik-ki ḫal-pi-iš 9 dna-an diti-meš dsa-a-kur-ri-zi2-iš-na (36)pi-ir-ka4 ḫi zi2-la ša2-par2-rak2-um-me ḫu-ud-da-iš a-ak me-ni dišda-tur-ši-iš aš2-ki in-ni ḫu-ut-taš dišu2-un za-ti-iš (37)ku-iš dišu2 ma-da-be-ik-ki[17] ši-in-nu-gi-ut And Darius the king says: Daturšiš by name, an Armenian, my servant, I sent him to the Armenia, thus I said to him: Go forth! The troops who (are) rebels (and) do not call themselves mine, kill them! Then Daturšiš went off. When (he) went to Armenia, the rebels assembled (and) came against Daturšiš: let us do battle! Then Daturšiš battled them in a village, Suzza by name, in Armenia, there. Ahuramazda sent me aid. (By) the intercession of Ahuramazda, my troops slaughtered many of the rebellious troops. 8 days of the month Turmar had passed, thus (they) did battle. And again (for) the 2nd (time) the rebels assembled (and) came against Daturšiš: let us do battle! Then at a fortress, Tigra by name, in Armenia, (they) did battle there. Ahuramazda sent me aid. (By) the intercession of Ahuramazda, my troops slaughtered many of the rebellious troops. 18 days of the month Turmar had passed, thus (they) did battle. And again (for) the 3rd (time) the rebels assembeled (and) came against Daturšiš: let us do battle! In the fortress, Wiyama by name, in Armenia, (they) did battle there. Ahuramazda sent me aid. (By) the intercession of Ahuramazda, my troops slaughtered many of the rebellious troops. 9 days of the month Sakurriziš had passed, thus (they) did battle, and then Daturšiš did not accomplished anything. (He) awaited me until I came to Media.
par. 24 a-ak dišda-ri-ia-ma-u-iš dišeššana na-an-ri dišma-u-mi-iš-(38)ša2 ḫi-še dišbar-šir8 ki-ir dišu2 dišli-ba-ru-ri ḫu-pir2-ri dišu2 ti-ib-be dišḫar-mi-nu-ia-ip-ik-ki da-aḫ ḫi (39)zi2-la i ti-ri mi-te dištaš-šu-ip2 ap-pa dišbe-ti-ip dišu2-ni-na in-ni ti-ri-man-pi ḫu-pi-be ḫal-pi-iš man-ka4 me-ni (40)dišma-u-mi-iš-ša2 sa-ak sa-ap dišḫar-mi-nu-ia-ip-ik-ki ir pa-ri-ik-ka4 dišbe-ti-ip pir2-ru ir ša2-ir-ra-ib-ba dišma-(41)u-mi-iš-ša2 ir-ma ši-in-nu-ip ša2-par2-rak2-um-me ḫu-ut-ti-nu-un ḫu-ba me-ni iz-zi2-la ḫi-še 2-šu-ra-an ḫa-mi ša2-par2-(42)rak2-um-me ḫu-ud-da-iš du-ra-maš-da pi-ik-ti dišu2 da-iš za-u-mi-in du-ra-maš-da-na dištaš-šu-ip2 ap-pa dišu2-(43)ni-na dištaš-šu-ip2 ap-pa dišbe-ti-ip-na ir-še-ik-ki ḫal-pi-iš 15 dna-an diti-meš dḫa-na-ma-ak-kaš-na pi-ir-ka4 i (44)zi2-la ša2-par2-rak2-um-me ḫu-ud-da-iš a-ak ša2-rak2 2-um-me-ma dišbe-ti-ip pir2-ru ir ša2-ir-ra-ib-ba dišma-u-mi-iš-(45)ša2 ir-ma ši-in-nu-ip ša2-par2-rak2-um-me ḫu-ut-ti-nu-un ḫu-ba me-ni ba-ti-in ḫa-u-ti-ia-ru-iš ḫi-še ḫa-mi ša2-par2-rak2-um-(46)me ḫu-ud-da-iš du-ra-maš-da pi-ik-ti dišu2 da-iš za-u-mi-in du-ra-maš-da-na dištaš-šu-ip2 ap-pa dišu2-ni![18]-na dištaš-šu-(47)ip2 ap-pa dišbe-ti-ip ir-še-ik-ki ḫal-pi-iš diti-meš dtu-ir-ma-ir-< na ?>[19] pu-in-ki-te-ma ḫi zi2-la ša2-par2-rak2-um-me ḫu-ud-da-(48)iš me-ni dišma-u-mi-iš-ša2 dišḫar-mi-nu-ia-ip-ik-ki za-ti-iš ku-iš dišu2 dišma-da-be-ik-ki ši-in-nu-gi-ut And Darius the king says: Maumiša by name, a Persian, my servant, him I sent forth to Armenia, thus (I) said him: Go forth! The troops who are rebels (and) don't call themselves mine, kill them! Then Maumiša went (off). When (he) went (off) to Armenia, the rebels assembled (and) came against Maumiša: let us do battle! Then, in Izzila by name in Assyria, (they) did battle there. Ahuramazda sent me aid. (By) the intercession of Ahuramazda, my troops slaughtered many of the rebellious troops. 15 days of the month Hanamakaš had passed, thus (they) did battle. And again (for) the 2nd (time) the rebels assembled (and) came against Maumiša: let us do battle! Then in the district, Hautiyarus by name, (they) did battle there. Ahuramazda sent me aid. (By) the intercession of Ahuramazda, my troops slaughtered many of the rebellious troops. The month Turmar, at its end thus (they) did battle. Then Maumiša waited in Armenia until I came to Media.
par. 25 a-ak (49)dišda-ri-ia-ma-u-iš dišeššana na-an-ri me-ni dišu2 ba-pi-li-mar li-lu-gi-ud-da dišma-da-be-ik-ki pa-ri-ia sa-ap dišma-(50)da-be-ik-ki in pa-ru-gi-ut ḫal-meš ku-un-tar-ru-iš ḫi-še dišma-da-be-ik-ki ḫa-mi dišpir2-ru-mar-ti-iš ḫu-pir2-ri ši-(51)in-nu-ik ak-ka4 na-an-ri dišu2 dišeššana-me dišma-da-be-na ḫu-ud-da ma-ra ša2-par2-rak2-um-me ḫu-ut-ti-man-ra me-ni ša2-par2-rak2-um-me ḫu-(52)ud-da-u-ut du-ra-maš-da pi-ik-ti dišu2 da-iš za-u-mi-in du-ra-maš-da-na ḫa-mi dištaš-šu-ip2 ap-pa dišpir2-ru-mar-ti-iš-na diš(53)u2 ḫal-pi ir-še-ik-ki 20(+)5 dna-an diti-meš dḫa-du-kan2-na-iš-na pi-ir-ka4 ḫi zi2-la ša2-par2-rak2-um-me ḫu-ut-ti-u2-ut me-ni diš(54)pir2-ru-mar-ti-iš ḫu-pir2-ri dište-ul-nu-ib ḫa-ri-ik-ki-ip i-da-ka4 pu-ut-tuk-ka4 rak2-ka4-an sa-ak me-ni dišu2 dištaš-šu-ip2 me-(55)mi da-aḫ ḫa-mi-mar mar-ri-ka4 dišu2-ik-ki tin-gi-ik dišu2 ḫi-ši-um-me a-ak ti-ut-me a-ak si-ri maš2-zi2-ia el-te (56)ki du-ma zi2-ip dišu2-ni-na-ma rab2-ba-ka4 mar-ri-ik dištaš-šu-ip2 mar-be-ip-da ir zi2-ia-iš a-ak me-ni ag-ma-da-na geš(57)ru-ir-ma ir be-la a-ak ku-ud-da dišlu2-meš ap-pa ḫa-tar-ri-man-nu da-mi ḫu-pa-ip-pi ḫu-pi-be ag-ma-da-na ḫal-mar-ri-(58)iš-ma-mar sag-meš ap-pi-ni ša2-ra kap-pa-ka4 ap-pi-in ši-ra And Darius the king says: Then I came forth from Babylon and went to Media. When I went to Media, the town, Kuntarruš by name, in Media, that Phraortes, who said: I am king of the Medes, came to do battle there. Then (we) did battle. Ahuramazda sent me aid. (By) the intercession of Ahuramazda, I slaughtered many of troops of Phraortes. 25 days of the month Hadukannaš had passed, thus (we) did battle. Then that Phraortes together with few horsemen fled and went to Rakkan. Then I sent the troops after him. From there (he) was seized and brought (back) to me. I cut off his nose and tongue and ears and I put out one eye, (and) at my gate (he) was bound and seized. All people saw him and then at Ecbatana I impaled him and the men who were his foremost followers, at a fortress in Ecbatana I cut off their heads (and) I displayed(?) all of them together.
par. 26 a-ak dišda-ri-ia-ma-u-iš dišeššana na-an-ri dišru-(59)uḫ ki-ir dišzi2-iš-ša2-in-tak-ma ḫi-še 2-ša2-kar-ti-ia-ra ḫu-pir2-ri dišu2-ik-ki-mar be-ip-tuk-ka4 dištaš-šu-ip2-be ḫi zi2-la ap (60)ti-ri-iš na-an-ri dišeššana-me dišu2 ḫu-ud-da dišnumun-meš dišma-ak-iš-tar-ra-na ni-ma-an-< ki?>[20] ma-ra me-ni dišu2 dištaš-šu-ip2 dišbar-šipx(EŠ) a-ak diš(61)ma-da-be ti-ib-be da-aḫ dištak-maš-ba-da ḫi-še dišma-da dišu2 dišli-ba![21]-ru-ri ḫu-pir2-ri dišir-ša2-ir-ra ap-pi-ni ir ḫu-ud-da (62)ḫi zi2-la ap ti-ri-ia mi-te-iš dištaš-šu-ip2 ap-pa dišbe-ti-ip dišu2-ni-na in-ni ti-ri-man-pi ḫu-pi-be ḫal-pi-iš man-ka4 me-ni dištak-(63)maš-ba-da dištaš-šu-ip2 i-da-ka4 ša-ak ša2-par2-rak2-um-me dišzi2-iš-ša2-in-tak-ma ḫi-da-iš[22] du-ra-maš-da pi-ik-ti dišu2 da-iš (64)za-u-mi-in du-ra-maš-da-na dištaš-šu-ip2 ap-pa dišu2-ni-na dištaš-šu-ip2 ap-pa dišbe-ti-ib-be ir-še-ik-ki ḫal-pi-iš ku-ud-da diš(65)zi2-iš-ša2-in-tak-ma ir mar-ri-iš dišu2-ik-ki ir tin-gi-iš dišu2 ḫi-ši-um-me a-ak si-ri maš2-zi2 el-te ki du-ma zi2-(66)ip dišu2-ni-na-ma rab2-ba-ka4 mar-ri-ik dištaš-šu-ip2 mar-ri-be-ip-da ir zi2-ia-iš me-ni![23] ḫar-be-ra ḫi-še ḫa-mi dišu2 gešru-(67)ir-ma ir be-la And Darius the king says: One man, Zišantakma by name, a Sagartian, rebelled against me and the to the people thus said: I am king. (I) am of the family of Cyaxares. Then I sent forth the Persian and the Median troops. Takmasbada by name, a Mede, my servant, I made him their chief, thus (I) said to them: Go forth! Rebellious troops (who) do not call themselves mine, kill them! Then Takmašbada together with troops went (off and) did battle with Zišantakma. Ahuramazda sent me aid. (By) the intercession of Ahuramazda, my troops slaughtered many of the rebellious troops and (they) seized Zišantakma (and) brought him to me. I cut off his nose and ears and put out one eye, and at my gate (he) was bound and seized. All people saw him. Then at Harbera by name, I impaled him.
par. 27 a-ak dišda-ri-ia-ma-u-is dišeššana na-an-ri ḫi dišu2 dišma-da-be-ik-ki ḫu-ud-da And Darius the king says: This is what I accomplished in Media.
par. 28 a-(68)ak dišda-ri-ia-ma-u-iš dišeššana na-an-ri dišpar2-tu-maš-be a-ak dišmi-ir-ka4-nu-ia-ip dišu2-ik![24]-ki-mar be-ip-ti-ib-ba dišpir2-ru-(69)mar-ti-iš-na ti-ri-ia-iš dišmi-iš-da-aš2-ba dišu2 dišad-da-da par2-tu-maš ša3-ri-ir ḫu-pir2-ri dištaš-šu-ip2 ir maš2-(70)te-ma-iš-ša2 be-ip-ti-ip a-ak me-ni dišmi-iš-da-aš2-ba dištaš-šu-ip2 ap-pa da-mi-nu i-da-ka4 sa-ak ḫal-meš mi-iš-ba-u-za-ti-iš (71)ḫi-še par2-tu-maš ḫa-mi ša2-par2-rak2-um-me dišbe-ti-ip ap-ma da-iš du-ra-maš-da pi-ik![25]-ti dišu2 da-iš za-u-mi-in du-ra-maš-da-na dišmi-(72)iš-da-aš2-ba dištaš-šu-ip2 ap-pa dišbe-ti-ip ḫal-pi-iš ir-še-ik-ki 22 dna-an diti-meš dmi-ia-kan2-na-iš-na pi-ir-ka4 ḫi zi2-la ša2-par2-(73)rak2-um-me ḫu-ud-da-iš And Darius the king says: The Parthians and the Hyrcanians rebelled against me and called themselves those of Phraortes. Hystaspes, my father, was in Parthia. The troops abandoned him and rebelled and then Hystaspes together with troops at his side went (off and) in the town, Mišbauzatiš by name, in Parthia, (he) did battle (with) rebels. Ahuramazda sent me aid. (By) the intercession of Ahuramazda, Hystaspes slaughtered many of the rebellious troops. 22 days of the month Miyakannaš had passed, thus (he) did battle.
par. 29 a-ak dišda-ri-ia-ma-u-iš dišeššana na-an-ri me-ni dišu2 dištaš-šu-ip2 dišbar-šipx(EŠ) rak2-ka4-an-mar dišmi-iš-da-(74)2-ba-ik-ki tin-gi-ia ša-ap dištaš-šu-ip2 ḫu-pi-be dišmi-iš-da-aš2-ba-ik-ki ir pa-ri-ip me-ni dišmi-iš-da-aš2-ba dištaš-šu-ip2 (75)ḫu-pi-be i-da-ka4 sa-ak ḫal-meš bat-ti-ig-rab2-ba-na ḫi-še par2-tu-maš ḫa-mi ša2-par2-rak2-um-me ḫu-ud-da-iš du-ra-maš-da pi-ik-ti dišu2 (76)da-iš za-u-mi-in du-ra-maš-da-na dišmi-iš-da-aš2-ba dištaš-šu-ip2 ap-pa dišbe-ti-ip ḫal-pi-iš ir-še-ik-ki 1 dna-an diti-meš dkar-(77)ma-pad-taš-< na?>[26] pi-ir-ka4 ḫi zi2-la ša2-par2-rak2-um-me ḫu-ud-da-iš And Darius the king says: Then I sent the Persian troops from Rakkan to Hystaspes. When that troops went to Hystaspes, then Hystaspes together with troops went (off) to a town, Pattigrabban by name, in Parthia, (where he) made battle. Ahuramazda sent me aid. (By) the intercession of Ahuramazda, Hystaspes slaughtered many of the rebellious troops. 1 day of the month Karmabataš had passed, thus (he) made battle.
par. 30 a-ak dišda-ri-ia-ma-u-is dišeššana na-an-ri me-ni dišda-a-ia-u2-(78)is dišu2-ni-na ḫa-ḫu-ud-da-ip ḫi dišu2 dišpar2-tu-mas ḫu-ud-da And Darius the king says: Then the nation became mine. This is what I accomplished in Parthia.
par. 31 a-ak dišda-ri-ia-ma-u-iš dišeššana na-an-ri dišda-a-ia-(79)u2-iš dišmar-ku-iš ḫi-še dišu2-ik-ki-mar be-ip-ti-ib-ba dišru-uḫ ki-ir dišpir2-ra-da ḫi-še dišmar-ku-iš-ir-ra ḫu-pir2-ri diš(80)eššana ap-pi-ni ir ḫu-ud-da-iš a-ak me-ni dišu2 dišda-tur-ši-iš ḫi-še dišbar-šir8 ki-ir dišu2 dišli-ba-ru-ri dišša2-ak-ša2-ba-ma-na-me ba-(81)ak-ši-iš ḫu-ut-taš dišḫu-ud-lak ḫu-pir2-ri-ik-ki tin-gi-ia na-an-gi mi-ut-ki-ni dištaš-šu-ip2 ap-pa dišbe-ti-ip dišu2-ni-na in-ni ti-ri-man-pi (82)ḫu-pi-be ḫal-pi-iš-ni man-ka4 me-ni dišda-tar-ši-iš[27] dištaš-šu-ip2 i-da-ka4 sa-ak ša2-par2-rak2-um-me dišmar-ku-iš-be ap-ma da-iš du-ra-maš-da pi-ik-ti (83)dišu2 da-iš za-u-mi-in du-ra-maš-da-na dištaš-šu-ip2 ap-pa dišu2-ni-na dištaš-šu-ip2 ap-pa dišbe-ti-ip-na ḫal-pi-iš ir-še-ik-ki 23 dna-an (84)diti-meš dḫa-iš-ši-ia-ti-ia-iš-na pi-ir-ka4 ḫi zi2-la ša2-par2-rak2-um-me ḫu-da-iš And Darius the king says: a nation, Margiana by name, rebelled against me, and one man, Pirrada by name, a Magian, made their kingship and then to Daturšiš by name, a Persian, my servant (who) had a satrapy in Bactria, I sent a messenger and (I) told (him) to go forth (and) kill the rebellious troops (who) do not call themselves mine. Then Daturšiš went (off) together with troops (and) did battle with the these Margians. Ahuramazda sent me aid. (By) the intercession of Ahuramazda, my troops slaughtered many of the rebellious troops. 23 days of the month Hašiyatiyaš had passed, thus (he) made battle.
par. 32 a-ak dišda-ri-ia-ma-u-iš dišeššana na-(85)an-ri me-ni dišda-a-ia-u2-iš dišu2-ni-na ḫa-ḫu-ud-da-ip ḫi dišu2 ba-ak-ši-iš ḫu-ud-da And Darius the king says: Then the nation became mine. This is what I accomplished in Bactria.
par. 33[28] a-ak And...




§4.3. Commentary
1. In par. 22, the reading of (12)dištaš-šu-ip2 dišbar-šipx(EŠ) a-ak dišma-da-be dišu2 da-(13)u2?⸣ ḫa-ri-ik-ki ša3-ri seems to match the photographs. Detailed examination of the rock shows that the first sign of line 13 is probably u2 (see figures 4,8 and 9). Therefore, I suggest the reading da-u2 for the earlier da-iš (Norris 1855, pl. ii; King and Thompson 1907, 114; Grillot-Susini, Herrenschmidt and Malbran-Labat 1993, 26; and Aliyari 2015, 115).[29] As cited in §2.1, some of the wedges at beginning of the lines have been eroded by water that had seeped into the column. In first examining the rock, the mentioned sign seems to be , but by comparing high-resolution photographs, particularly ones I had taken in direct sunlight, traces of the three vertical and two small horizontal wedges of u2 are discernible (see figures 8 and 9). In comparison to the forms of and u2 written nearby in the second column (i.e. the first sign of line 18 or in lines 12, 15 and 17), the reading u2 at the beginning of line 13 is preferred over the reading (ibid). The new reading could be related to the stem dau- (daḫu-). Hallock translated dau- as "to help" and Grillot-Susini considered it related to the meaning "to aid..." (Hallock 1969, 681; Hinz and Koch 1987, 301). It should be mentioned that in Behistun, two other derivatives of dau- (daḫup and dauman) also appear in the third column (Hallock 1969, 681) where Darius names the six Persian men who helped him slaughter Gaumāta the Magus.[30] Compared to OP and Bab. correspondence, we infer that semantically, dau- could also carry the meaning "to ally", "to be with someone (as auxiliary force)" or similar.[31] With this interpretation and using Hallock's terminology, the writing of da-u2 (=dau "I helped") as a Conj. I of dau-) in par. 22 is probable.[32] Therefore, it is possible to translate the sentence in par. 22 as: "The Persian and the Median troops with me (or who were helpful) were few."[33]

2. Some scribal errors are found in the text of the second column. As indicated in the transliteration, in some cases, the signs are written with an extra wedge or with a missing wedge. According to the Behistun inscription, it seems that, firstly, the scribes wrote the cuneiform texts (probably on clay) and arranged them in correspondence to their designated columns; then, the engravers cut them into the stone. Although it is difficult to determine a reason for such errors, they might have occurred due to the engravers' inadequate knowledge of cuneiform or to absent-mindedness. In addition, frequent repetition of some phrases, terms and even signs with similar forms (such as ba and šu) might be a cause of these errors.[34]


3. As this contribution follows the edition of the first column in the Elamite version of the Behistun inscription, here I add a comment about the reading of ap-pa-pa ANŠE in par. 17 of the first column (see Amiri 2017 , 3, 6, 18). Based on the most recent photographs, it can be confirmed that in the Elamite version, the Sumerogram ANŠE, "ass(es)," is composed of the signs pa+šabx Hallock 1969, 83 and 86. Therefore, the reading ap-pa ANŠE is correct and my reading is to be corrected to what is written in some earlier editions (e.g. Grillot-Susini, Herrenschmidt and Malbran-Labat, 1993 , 25; Vallat 1977 , 93).


BIBLIOGRAPHY


  1. Aliyari, Salman Babolghani (2015). The Elamite Version of Darius the Great's Inscription at Bisotun. Tehran: Nashr-e Markaz Publishing Co.
  2. Amiri, Saber Parian (2017). "A New Edition of the Elamite Version of the Behistun Inscription (I)", In: CDLB 3.
  3. Cameron, George G (1960). "The Elamite Version of the Bisitun Inscription", In: JCS 14 , pp. 59-68.
  4. Grillot-Susini, Francoise, and Clarisse Herrenschmidt and Florence Malbran-Labat (1993). "La version elamite la trilingue de Behistun: une nouvelle lecture", In: JA 281 , pp. 19-59.
  5. Hallock, Richard T (1969). Persepolis Fortification Tablets (PFT), Oriental Institute Publication 92. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
  6. Hinz, Walther and Koch, Heidemarie (1987). Elamisches Worterbuch (EIW), Archaelogische Mitteilungen aus Iran suppl. 17. Berlin: Reimer.
  7. King, Leonard W and Thompson, Reginald C. (1907). The Sculptures and Inscription of Darius the Great on the Rock of Behistun in Persia, A new Collation of the Persian, Susian and Babylonian Texts. London: Longmans.
  8. Norris, Edwin (1855). "Memoir on the Scythic Version of the Behistun Inscription", In: JRAS 15 , pp. 1-52, 53-60, 61-213.
  9. Schmitt, Rudiger (1991). "The Bisitun Inscription of Darius the Great, Old Persian Text". In: CII, Part I: Inscriptions of Ancient Iran, Vol. 1: The Old Persian Inscriptions, Texts 1. London: SOAS.
  10. Vallat, Francois (1977). Corpus des Inscriptions Royales en Elamite Achemenide, [unpublished].
  11. Von Voigtlander, Elizabeth (1978). "The Bisitun Inscription of Darius the Great, Babylonian Version". In: CII, Part I: Inscriptions of Ancient Iran, Vol. 2: The Babylonian Versions of the Achaemenian Inscriptions, Texts 1. London: SOAS.
  12. Weissbach, Franz Heinrich (1911). Die Keilinschriften der Achameniden.VAB 3.J.C. Hincrichs'she Buchhandlung.

Figures


Figure1: The upper section of the second column of the Elamite version of the Behistun inscription, §§20-24, lines 1-38.Figure2: The middle section of the second column of the Elamite version of the Behistun inscription, §§23-26, lines 36-59.Figure3: The lower section of the second column of the Elamite version of the Behistun inscription, §§25-33, lines 57-85.Figure4: An image of the current state of the upper left side of the second column from line 3 to 14.Figure5: An image of the current state of the upper right side of the second column from line 3 to 12.Figure6: An image of the current state of the lower left side of the second column from line 70 to 85.Figure7: An image of the current state of the lower right side of the second column from line 70 to 85.Figure8: An image of the partial left side of the second column. Note the form of the first sign of line 13 (see §3.3.1).Figure9: Another image of the partial left side of the second column. The form of the first sign of line 13 is more discernible and probably is u2 (see §4.3.1).


Footnotes


  1. For more details about the older Elamite version of the Behistun inscription, see Cameron 1960, 59-61.
  2. Research on the second column has been carried out by examining the photographs I had taken of the inscription. The photographs were analyzed and examined by the method I described in CDLB (Amiri 2017), 1f. My line art hand copy of the second column, as well as a selection of my photographs documentation, have been posted to the text's CDLI entry online. I would like to express my gratitude to Mr. Hossein Raei, Mr. Samet Ejraei, Mr. Farid Saedi and Mr. Mehdi Fattahi of the Bisotun Cultural Heritage Center in Iran for their permission to take detailed measurements and photography of the cuneiform inscriptions and to Mr. Keyvan Mahmoudi for his assistance in this photographic work. I express my sincere thanks to Abdolmajid Arfaee in Tehran and Parsa Daneshmand of Wolfson College of the University of Oxford for their invaluable council regarding the second column and preparing the transliteration of the Elamite version.
  3. King and Thompson's measurement of the second column in 1904 are: 11 feet and 2 inches in height (=340.36 cm) and 6 feet and 10.25 inches in width (=208.9 cm) (King and Thompson 1907, xxiv).
  4. The wedges seem to be more delicate in the second column than in the other two. They were engraved more elaborately, particularly than the first column. In the second column, the average height of the lines is almost 4 cm while in the others it is almost 3.6 cm. At the end of the last lines in the first and the second columns, the first signs of each paragraph are written (see figures 3 and 7) followed by a long blank space up to the vertical border. The paragraph continues at the top of the next column. The existence of this blank space could be a reason for the assumption that the engraver was interrupted in writing the text at these points.
  5. In this article, the following abbreviations are employed: AE: Achaemenid Elamite; Bab.: Babylonian; CAD: Chicago Assyrian Dictionary; EIW: Elamisches Worterbuch; KT: King and Thompson; OP: Old Persian; CII: Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum; PFT: Persepolis Fortification Tablets and VAB: Vorderasiatische Bibliothech.
  6. In the transliteration, line numbers are specified in parentheses.
  7. The first term of paragraph 20 (a-ak "and") appears at the end of the first column (Amiri 2017, 7) and this paragraph continues with the phrase dišda-ri-ia-ma-u-iš eššana na-an-ri "Darius the king says," at the top of the second column.
  8. Instead of aš, diš is to be expected as a determinative for eššana.
  9. A tufa deposit has covered u2 at the end of the pertinent line (see figure 5). However, its faint trace is clearly recognizable.
  10. dišḫal-tam5-ti and dišḫal-tam5-ti-ip are variant writings of Hatamtip or Hatamtup "Elamites" and "Elam" (Hallock 1969, 694).
  11. In this paragraph, asma-da-be-ik-ki appears three times. We also expect diš as a determinative for ma-da-be.
  12. The number 20 is written at the end of line 18 and then number 7 is written at the beginning of line 19.
  13. ḫu-ut-la; all signs are clearly discernible on the rock.
  14. mi-da and mi-te (in par. 24) are variant writings of a Conj. II imperative form of mite- and mean "go forth!" (Hallock, Richard T, 1969 , 732).
  15. ša2-ir-ra-ib-ba and ša2-ir-ra-ap-ba are variant writings of šarrapa "they assembled" (Hallock 1969, 755).
  16. u2-ba and ḫu-ba are variant writings of uba (Hallock 1969, 698). ḫu-ud-ti-nu-un ḫu-ba: Hallock translated this phrase as "let us make (battle)". He interpreted ḫuba (or uba) evidently as a cohortative particle in the phrase (ibid).
  17. Expected here is diš as a determinative for ma-da-be (King and Thompson 1907, 119).
  18. ni! has an extra vertical wedge and is written as ir (King and Thompson 1907, 121).
  19. na is expected here, as a genitive postposition preceded by the month name dtu-ir-ma-ir Hallock 1969, 98 and 735.
  20. Like ni-ma-an-ki "I am" in par. 22, -k (ki, ka4 or alike) is expected here to form a Conj. IIIm of ni- "to be", however Hallock considered ni-ma-an "being" in par. 26, as a Conj. IIIm infinitive of ni- (Hallock, Richard T, 1969 , 738).
  21. ba! written as šu King 1907, 121.
  22. According to Hallock's terminology, it seems that ḫi-da-iš is a variant writing of the term idaš: I. ḫi(i) "to him"+ II. daš (conjugation I form of da- "to set, place") cf. idaka Hallock 1969, 680, 696 and 701.
  23. ni! written as ir and has an extra vertical wedge (King Thompson 1907, 125).
  24. ik! lacks one vertical wedge King 1907, 125.
  25. ik! lacks one vertical wedge (King and Thompson 1907, 126).
  26. na is expected here, as a genitive postposition preceded by the month name dkar-ma-pad-taš Hallock 1969, 98 and 735.
  27. In par. 31, both of dišda-tur-ši-iš and dišda-tar-ši-iš appear as variant writing of the proper name Daturšiš (Hallock 1969, 681).
  28. a-ak followed by a long blank space until the vertical border of column. The paragraph 33 continues at top of next column.
  29. Weissbach and Vallat included da-iš in their editions (Weissbach 1911, 3, 30; Vallat 1977, 99).
  30. Par. 54: ap-pidišlu2-meš dišu2 da-u-ip ku-išdišu2diškam-ma-ad-da dišak-ka4dišma-ku-iš [ir ḫal-pi-ia]... a-ak ḫa-me-irdišlu2-meš dišap-pi dišu2 da-u2-man li-ip "ce sont les hommes qui etaient mes aides jusqu'a ce que [je tue] Gammatta, le mage, ... et, ces circonstances, ces hommes m'ont apporte leur aide" (Grillot-Susini, Herrenschmidt and Malbran-Labat, 1993, 38).
  31. OP imai martiyā, tayai adakai avadā āḫantā, yātā adam Gaumātam tayam magum avājanam... adakai imai martiyā ḫamataxsantā anusiyā manā "these (are) the men who at that time were there, whilst I slew Gaumāta the magus... At that time these men strove as my followers" (Schmitt, 1991 , 72); Bab. lu2 erin2-meš a-gan-nu-tu4 ša4 {it-ti-ia i-tu-ru-' a-di ugu ša2 a-na-ku a-na dišgu-ma-a-ti a-ga-šu-u2} lu2 ma-gu-šu2 ad-du-ku... lu2 erin2-meš a-ga-nu-tu ša2 kit-ru-ia il-li-[ku-'] "These are the men who were with me when I killed that Gaumata, the Magush... These are the men who came as my allies" (Von Voigtlander 1978, 46f, 62); see also CAD, K, 467 s.v. kitru A which is translated as "(military) aid", "auxiliaries", "auxiliary force" etc.
  32. Also, da-u2-<ip?> (=daup/daḫup "they were helpful", "they aid" as a Conj. II of dau-) is another alternative suggestion supposing that the scribe/engraver erred following da-u2 (Hallock 1969, 679).
  33. Note on the OP and Bab. correspondence: OP kāra Parsā utā Māda, ḫya upā mām āḫa, ḫau kamnam āḫa "the Persian and Median army, which was under (the control of) me, that was a small thing" (Schmitt, Rudiger, 1991 , 57) and Bab. u2-qu ša2 it-ti-ia ša2 kur par-su u kur ma-da-a-a i-ṣu-tu2 "the troops of Persia and Media with me were few" (Von Voigtlander 1978, 23, 56).
  34. This is based on personal communication with Abdolmajid Arfaee who believes that the scribes and the engravers were different. He says that unlike the first column, the text of the second column has a clear relationship with consecutive revolts and Darius's battles against rebels. Therefore, a number of phrases are regularly repeated through the text, such as šaparrakumme ḫuttaš "he did battle", šaparrakumme ḫuttinun (ḫ)uba "let us do battle!", taššup appa unina taššup appa betip-na irše-ikki ḫalpiš "my troops slaughtered many of the rebellious troops", betip pirru ir šarrapa "the rebels assembled (and)," etc. He mentioned that these repetitions might be the cause of such errors.

  35. Version: 1.0